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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Why is this an incomplete description of aggression?

An act causing pain or discomfort.
According to this, a dentists actions would be considered aggressive, but a sniper who misses his target would not be considered aggressive.
What types of acts does intentional aggression include over the definition of 'any act causing pain or discomfort' ?
The intentional definition considers the intention and the act.

It would include a kick that misses its target as aggressive but would exclude rough and tumple play
Why isn't it always straightforward to classify aggressive acts?
Interpretation of aggressive acts depends on many factors:

-personal background and prior experiences
-gender of participants and
people involved
-social class

Example, the shooting of a deer would be viewed differently by a hunter and a vegetarian.
What is a more complete view of aggression?
injurious or destructive behavior, intended to harm, frustrate, injure or deprive someone. Consider intent of the person's actions.

Interpretation can vary across cultures, contexts, perpetrators, victims and people can still disagree about whether an act is aggressive.
What is the difference between hostile and instrumental aggression?
Hostile agression - goal is to injure someone. Knock down sister and tease her.

Instrumental aggression - harm someone to get something they have, ie, non-aggressive end. Knock down sister and take her toy.
Give examples that show aggression can be adaptive.
-Fighting off an intruder to protect young.

-Fighting to compete for female insures that the strongest animals reproduce.
What are some flaws of considering aggression to be an instinct?
-Some species are more aggressive than others.

-No biological mechanism has been found that can explain aggression.

-Humans can be empathetic.

-Aggressive behaviors that have been thought to be an instinct can be modified by social learning (cat-rat).
According to Bandura, how is aggression acquired?
Observational learning and experience (get toys if you are aggressive).
According to Bandura, how is aggression maintained?
Aggressive behaviors are maintained if the kid gets what he wants.
What are some differences between children that use aggression and children who don't?
-they don't have concern about the suffering they cause.

-they believe aggression will pay off.

-don't think they cause permanent damage.

-cluster in gangs
According to Bandura, why does a person tend to keep aggressive habits?
-Helps to achieve goals.
-Dominate others behaviors.
-Accepted by peers.
-Aggressor considers it rewarding.
What is the difference between a proactive aggressor and a reactive aggressor?
Proactive Aggressor uses aggression to solve problems or get what they want.

Reactive Aggressor - retaliate in a hostile manner; can't control their anger long enough to look for a solution to a social problem
What factors does Dodge say should be taken into account for aggressive acts?
Look at:

-how does harmdoer react?
-past experience
-emotional control
-strategy to resolve
What is the difference between the reaction of a hostile aggressor and a reactive aggressor?
Reactive Aggressor - tend to interpret an ambiguous accident as intentional.

Proactive Aggressor - judge ambiguous accidents as NOT being intentional. They keep control.
According to the social view, which one is more important in the way a child reacts to provocation, his cognitive point of view of the intention or the amount of harm done?
Cognitive point of view of intention
Even a 1 year old can be aggressive if he wants to get a toy that another infant has.
What is the difference between aggresive behavior shown by a 2-3 year old and a 5 year old?
2-3 year olds kick, bite and hit

5 year olds tease, taunt, and tattle.
Why does aggression increase around 4th grade?
Two Reasons:

-4th graders are better than younger kids at figuring out intent.

-Fighting back is accepted as what you are supposed to do in these situations.
Highly aggressive 8 year olds are at risk to become hostile by 30 and batter spouse, children and be involved in criminatl offenses
Explain the stability of aggression with age.
Some follow a No Problem Trajectory - low aggression when young, low when old.

Some follow a High Persistent Trajectory, High when young, high when old.

These 2 groups above remain the most stable.

Some follow moderate decraser and high decreaser, starting high and ending up low. These 2 are less stable.
Which of the above groups is at the highest risk for antisocial conduct?
High Persistent
What qualitites do most parents want instilled in their children?
-Sense of right and wrong
-Don't hurt others
-Abide by the rules
-Concern for others
What is prosocial behavior?
Sharing, Helping, Comforting others.
Is prosocial behavior inborn or learned?
Evolutionary Theorist - prosocial concern is genetic because it helps to ensure survival of the species.

Psychoanalytic & Social Learning - its from social agents.

Cognitive - its from social agents and add that its based on the person's intellectual development.
Which view of prosocial behavior is being described?

Altruism and Empathy are instinctive because we recieve protection, satisfy needs if we live in social units, then pass these genes to offspring.
Biological View
Which view of prosocial behavior is being described?

Prosocial views from parents are internalized by the superego.
Psychoanalytic View
Which view of prosocial behavior is being described?

People repeat behaviors that are reinforced and avoid repeating acts that are punished. This contradicts altruism but it is explained by looking at what one gains and alleviation of their own distress.
Social Learning Theory
What do Social Learning Theorists and Cognitive Theorists say about what should happen to prosocial behavior as one matures?
Cooperating, sharing, volunteering and giving comfort should increase as one matures.
Explain the stages of Prosocial development according to Piaget wrt Cognitive Development
2 years old - sharing, sympathy, cheer distressed companion.

3-6 Preoperations - still egocentric and hedonistic

6-11 Concrete Operations - less egocentric, better role taking skills.

Adolescent - Formal Operations. Golden Rule, kind, guilt if do not follow.
What 2 factors are largely responsible for a child's prosocial behavior?
Parent's reactions
Describe moms of compassionate toddlers.

Discipline by explaining and showing relationship between their action and the other child's distress.

Verbal and Physical Abuse

Even a 12-18 month old will share some toyz and help with chores.

Typical 2-3 year olds will share a treasured toy with a peer on their own.
False, better chance if threatened.
When is sharing and prosocial conduct more common in children (age)?
Multicultural studies show that sharing, helping, and prosocial conduct are more common from elementary school onward.
What specific skills are related to Pro social behavior?
Role Taking Skills
Moral Reasoning
What helping skill do good role takers have that poor role takers do not?
If good and poor role takers are assigned to help younger children, they both help when asked.

However, the good role takers pick up on non-verbal cues and offer help when they aren't asked explicitly where as the poor role takers do not.

Therefore, there is a positive correlation between role taking skills and prosocial conduct.
What skills are positively correlated with altruism?
Role taking skills
Moral reasoning
Empathetic reactions to others that are in trouble
Considering yourself altruistic
Which are the best predictor of altruism?

a. how a person rates their own empathy

b. teacher ratings of a person's empathy

c. facial expression to other's misfortune
b & c
How does feeling empathetic cause a person to make the effort to help?
As children get older, they internalize the Golden Rule.

If they have a self-concept that they are helpul (crayon experiment)

The 8 year olds were more likely than the 5 year olds to donate because altruistic became part of their self-image.
What contributes to low altruism of Western Children?

How can you make the Western children more altruistic?

Praise good acts because children will try to live up to standards.

Practice what you preach about being prosocial, many kids will model.
If a child demonstrates prosocial behavior, what can be predicted about his parents?
Parents were charitable, had warm relationship with their children.

If parents preach, but rarely practice altruism, is not enough for children to copy.

Instead of disciplining child strongly, explain damage he did and make him take personal responsibility.

There is support for Freud's theory that moral development begins around 3-6 years old when children are in the Oedipus/Electra Conflict
According to Piaget, when do children develop a strong sense for rules?
Ages 5-10, they see it as absolutes of right and wrong.

Judge an act by damage, not by intent. John is worse because he broke 15 cups, even though it was an accident.

Spank him for breaking the window, but don't make him pay for it.
According to Piaget, when do children become more flexible with society's rules?
Around 10, believe society's rules can be bent and that punishment should fit the crime.
What are some weaknesses of Piaget's Theory of Morality when applied to young children.
The 3 year olds can have a sense of intent, think its bad if boy hits his friend with the ball from anger than from if it was an accident.
What is the similarity in Piaget and Kohlbergs theories?
Stage: Proximo stage replaces previous one, therefore no regression
Kohlberg was mainly interested in a child's answer to a moral dilemma.
In Kohlberg's view, look for a way of thinking
What is Kohlberg Stage 1?
Preconventional Morality
External: Look at consequences.

If you can get away with it, no problem.
What is Kohlberg Stage 2?
Naive Hedonism

You scratch my back, i'll do yours.
What is Kohlberg Stage 3?
Moral = judged by others as being good.
Kohlberg Stage 4
Look at broad principles of justice and how it maintains social order.
Kohlberg Stage 6, highest
Puts law against morality. If its morally right, do it.

Saving a life is more important than obeying a law.

To arrive at level 6, children had to be exposed to situations to modify their points of view.

Piaget and Kohlberg believed that cognition and social experience underlie moral reasoning.

There is evidence that people process through the stages of moral development as Kohlberb suggested.

Interaction with peers, rather than lectures, foster moral develpment
When a child commits a bad act that needs to be punished, love withdrawal and power assertion are more effective than Induction (explaining why a behavior is wrong and harm that is done).

Induction fosters moral emotions, reasoning, and behavior.