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48 Cards in this Set

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What phases do 1-2 year old children go through when separated from their parents or attachment figure?
Protest - want mother back, resist attention from substitute care givers.

Despair - reject toys and other people.

Detach - play again and interact with subs, do not react much to mother's appearance or departure.

Withdraw - if no attachment figure.
What is attachment?
affection and desire between 2 people to be close, reciprocal
What are some attachment behaviors showed by 1-2 year olds?
Grin at mother
Cry to mother when upset
Crawl behind, especially if frightened
How does attachment progress from

0-6 weeks
6 weeks - 7 months
7-9 months?
0-6 weeks - Asocial- will smile the same amount at people or objects.

6 weeks - 7 months - Indiscriminate - are ok with attention from most anyone, smile more at people than objects.

7-9 months - get attached usually to mother, follow her and greet warmly, use her as a secure base, become wary of strangers.
What is the difference between Freud's and Erikson's views of attachment?
Freud thought attachment was primarily due to feeding and Erikson said it was due to the mother's overall responsiveness to gain the infant's trust.
How does psychoanalysis, ethology, and cognition contribute to the understanding of attachment?
Psychoanalysis - its necessary to understand mother and infant interactions, caregivers must be responsive to gain infant's trust.

Ethologists - infants play a part too and are pre-programmed for this type of behavior.

Cognitive Scientiests - the timimg of attachment is related to the level of development.
What is examined in the strange situation?
Look at the infants:

separation and re-union behavior

exploring using mom as a secure base

reaction to stranger
Describe the 4 types of attachment
Secure - explore using mother as a base, get upset when she leaves, greets her warmly and seek physical contact during re-union.

Resistant - explore very little, very upset when she leaves, remain near mother but resist her contact when she returns. Resist stranger even when mother is present.

Avoidant - show little distress when separated from mother, ignore her when she tries to get attention.

Disorganized - stressed when mother leaves. When re-united, move close and then away.
Several factors influence the type of attachment. Describe moms of securely attached, resistant, avoidant, and disorganized infants.
Securely Attached - sensitive, responsive, interact with synchrony.

Resistant - inconsistent, parents are over enthusiastic or under based on their mood. Infant clings and cries then becomes angry or resentful.

Avoidant - mothers are impatient, rigid, and self-centered; unresponsive to infant's signals OR overzealous and try to stimulate kid when he does not want it.

Disorganized - kid is drawn to but fearful because parents are abusive or depressed.
What factors lead to insecure attachments?
Clinically depressed mothers
Abused parents
Unwanted Pregnancy
Unhappy marriage
What type of intervention can be used if an infant is insecurely attached?
Give mother support
Teach mothers how to be sensitive, attentive, and responsive

Teach mother how to consider infant's needs and his temperament for a smoother interaction.
Attachments are stable over time. What is the difference over time between infants that are securely and insecurely attached at 18 months?
Securely attached - More creative, better problem solvers, more positive emotions and group leaders with a lot of friends.

Insecurely attached - Aggressive, hostile playmates, get rejected.
What are the results of the models of self and the models of others for:

Positive Self + Positive Others

Negative Self + Negative Others

Positive Self + Negative Others

Negative Self + Positive Others
Positive Self + Positive Others:

-form secure attachments
-have self confidence to face challenges.
-inclined to form secure relationships in life.

Negative Self + Negative others:

-form disorganized attachment
-have fear of being hurt in intimate relationships.

Positive Self + Negative Others:

-form avoidant attachment
-dismiss importance of close emotional bonds.

Negative Self + Positive Others:

-form resistant attachment
-preoccupation with forming secure emotional ties
Secure attachment histories are a guarantee of a positive development and Insecure attachments are a guarantee of a negative development.
What is the Social Stimulation Hypothesis?
Kids need sustained interactions with responsive companions, one or more, to develop normally.
Kids can recover from early deprivation if intervention is early and they are placed in homes where they get lots of attention from sensitive, responsive caregivers.
What is temperament?
Emotional and Behavioral Reactivity.

The way that emotions influence behavior and how we react to a situation.
What are different components of emotions?
Positive or negative feelings
Physiology Changes in body
Cognitions and thoughts
What theory says that emotions are inborn and adaptive from our evolution.
Discrete Emotions Theory.

Each discrete emotion has body and facial reactions from very young.
According to Functional Theorists, what is the purpose of emotions?
To achieve a goal.

Infants learn to regulate emotions over time due to consequences.
What emotions are innate and shown by almost all 1 month olds across cultures?
Surprise and Sadness
What differences are observed in the smiling of 1 month olds thru to 7 month olds?
1 month - smile is due mainly to biological pleasures

2 months - social smile; smile if can control music box.

3 months - smile at people more than at puppet

7 months - biggest smiles are for closest companions
When do most children first begin to show fear to strangers?
Around 7 months, at same time they show first attachment.
Fear to strangers shows up around 7 months, the same time that a child forms his first attachments.
Individual differences in fear to strangers depend on _______ and _______.
quality of attachment
When do children begin and get better at identifying others emotions?
Show some ability at 18 months and by 3-5 years have words to describe the situations.
By 1 year old a child has self conscious emotions such as shame, guilt, and pride.
No, by around 2-3 years old
At what age does social referencing start?
Looking at someone's expression and understanding meaning can start as early as 7-10 months.
A girl loses her rabbit. Later she is reminded of her rabbit and becomes sad. Would a 3 year old understand why she is sad?
Probably not, but most 4 and 5 year olds would understand.
5-7 year olds understand having conflicting emotions about something.
False, they are better able to understand having 2 similar emotions. At 8 years old are better able to understand contradictory emotions, eg being happy about going to a birthday party, but sad that a friend is not going.
the process of adjusting one's emotions to appropriate levels of intensity in order to accomplish one's goals
emotional self-regulation
a theory specifying the major purpose of an emotion is to establish, maintain, or change one's relationship with the environment to accomplish a goal; emotions are not viewed as discrete early in life but as entities that emerge with age
functionalist approach (to emotions)
self-conscious or self-evaluative emotions that emerge in the second and third years, and depend, in part, on cognitive development (sometimes called self-conscious emotions).
Secondary Emotions
the ability to achieve personal goals in social interactions while maintaining positive relationships with others
Social Competence
the use of others' emotional expressions to gain information or infer the meaning of otherwise ambiguous situations
Social Referencing
a person's characteristic modes of emotional and behavioral responding to environmental events, including such attributes as activity level, irritability, fearful distress, and positive affect
a theory of emotions specifying that specific emotions are biologically programmed, accompanied by distinct sets of bodily and facial cues, and discriminable from early in life
discrete emotions theory
a motivational construct that is characterized by changes in affect (or feelings), physiological responses, cognitions, and overt behavior
discrete emotions theory
a close emotional relationship between two persons, characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity
an insecure infant/caregiver bond, characterized by little separation protest and a tendency of the child to avoid or ignore the caregiver
avoidant attachment
an insecure infant/caregiver bond, characterized by the infant's dazed appearance on reunion or a tendency to first seek and then abruptly avoid the caregiver
disorganized attachment
the failure to learn how to respond appropriately in a situation because of previous exposures to uncontrollable events in the same or similar situations
learned helplessness
an insecure infant/caregiver bond, characterized by strong separation protest and a tendency of the child to remain near but resist contact initiated by the caregiver, particularly after a separation
resistant attachment
At what age can a child begin to hide his true feelings?
3 years
At what age do:
a) primary emotions appear?
b) secondary emotions appear?
c) primary emotions are more apparent?
d) social referencing appears
e) social referencing is more apparent
f) awareness that people may experience contrasting emotions about the same event
a) 0-6 months
b) 1-3 years
c) 7 months
d) 7-12 months
e) 1-3 years
f) 6-12 years
What is the ability to achieve personal goals in social interactions while continuing to maintain positive relationships with ohters
social competence
What 3 things are important for Emotional Competence?
Emotional expressivity
Emotional knowledge
Emotional regulation
Individual differences in emotion, reactivity, and self-regulation is _____