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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
sudden overwhelming fright or terror
panic attack
abrupt experience of intense fear or discomfort in the absense of danger accompanied by a number of physical symptoms, ie dizziness or heart palpitations
3 basic types of panic attacks in DSM-IV
situationally bound, unexpected, and situationally predisposed
which brain circuits and nuerotransmitter systems implicated in anxiety
- depleted levels of GABA (though not such a direct relationship)
-cortico-tropin releasing factor
symptoms of panic attack
- palpitations or heart pounding
- sweating
- trembling or shaking
- shortness of breath
- feeling of choking
- chest pain
- nausea
- dizziness
- feeling of unreality
- fear of losing control
- fear of dying
- numbness or tingling sensations
- chills or hot flashes
what did the study find about teen smoking and panic and gad?
teens who smoked 20+/day 15X more likely to develop panic disorder and 5X more likely to develop GAD
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
anxiety disorder characterized by intense, uncontrollable, unfocused, chronic, and continuous worry that is distressing and unproductive accompanied by physical symptoms of tension, irritability and restlessness
What is the prevelance of GAD?
Panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA)
Fear and avoidance of situations the person believes might induce a dreaded panic attack
Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape may be difficult
Disorder Criteria Summary -
Panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA)
- recurring unexpected panic attacks
- one or more of the following during the month after a panic attack:
1) persistent worry about having an additional attack
2) worry about the implications of an attack
3) significant change in behaviour related to the attack
- anxiety about being in places or social situations from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing
Panic disorder statistics
- 1.5-3.5%
- ~ 1/2 also agoraphobia
- 2/3 women
- 3 X more women have agoraphobia
- Mean onset = 25-29
social phobia
extreme, enduring, irrational fear and avoidance of social or performance situations
social phobia statistics
- 13% prevalence
- most common anx. disorder
- F:M 2.5-1
- onset: adolescence
social phobia disorder criteria
- marked & persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations that involve exposure to unfamiliar people or possible scrutiny by others, with the fear that one will be embarrassed or humiliated
- exposure to the feared social situation almost always provokes anxiety, sometime panic attack
- recognition (in adults) that fear is excessive and unreasonable
- the feared social or performance situation is avoided or endured with intense anxiety or distress
- the avoidance, anxious anticipation, or distress interferes with person's life and healthy functioning
Describe steps in cognitive model of social phobia.
social situation -> activation of assumptions -> perceived social danger -> catastrophic thinking -> behavioural symptoms
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
enduring, distressing emotional disorder that follows exposure to a severe helplessness or fear-inducing threat. The victim re-experiences the trauma, avoids stimuli associated with it, and develops a numbing of responsiveness and an increased vigilance and arousal.
acute stress disorder
severe reaction immediately following a terrifying event, often including amnesia about the event, emotional numbing, and derealization. Many victims later develop ptsd.
ptsd epidemiology
lifetime prev = ~1-2.5%
slightly F>M
age of onset = childhood - early adulthood
course: chronic, fluctuates - exacerbated by stress
ptsd: avoidance of stimuli
-associated thoughts, feelings
-activities, places
-amnesia for aspects of trauma
-detached/estranged from others
-restricted range of affect
-foreshortened future
trauma =
-actual or threatened death or serious injury
-threat to ones physical integrity
-witnessing death, injury or threat to other's physical integrity
-learning about unexpected or violent death/injury of close individual

and reacted with extreme fear, helplessness, or horror
persistently re-experinced:
-distressing memories
-psychological/physiological distress upon exposure
increased arousal examples:
- difficulty sleeping
- irritability, angry outbursts
- difficulty concentrating
- hypervigilance
- exaggerated startle response
ptsd treatment
stress inoculation training
cognitive (rewriting nightmare)
prolonged exposure

medication: ecstacy?
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) =
anxiety disorder involving unwanted, persistent, intrusive thoughts and impulses as well as repetitive actions intended to suppress them.
obsessions =
recurrent intrusive thoughts or impulses a person seeks to suppress to neutralize while recognizing they are not imposed by outside forces
compulsions =
repetitive, ritualistic, time-consuming behaviours or mental acts a person feels driven to perform
common obsessions
contamination 50%
aggressive impulses 50%
sexual content 32%
somatic concerns 35%
need for symmetry 37%
obsession/ritual associations 4 factors
1 obsessions/checking
2 symmetry/ordering
3 contamination/cleaning
4 hoarding

aggression and sexual obsessions seem to lead to checking

obsessions with symmetry lead to ordering and arranging or repeating rituals
ocd epidemiology
lifetime prev = ~ 2.5%
( 10-15% subthreshold)
slightly f>m
age onset = early adolesc. to mid 20s
earlier for males
course = gradual onset, stress related exacerbations