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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sexual behaviour refers to _____ _____ of any kind including behaviours related to ______.
sexual intercourse
courtship
What are the 4 stages of sexual interaction between male and female?
1. Sexual attraction
2. Appetite Behaviours
3. Copulation
4. Postcopulation
What are the four main hormones implicated in the sexual reproduction of females?
1. Oestrogen
2. Progesterone
3. LH
4. FSH
What are the two main hormones implicated in the sexual reproduction of males?
1. Testosterone
2. FSH
What are the main effects of Oestrogen?
1. Development of secondary sexual characteristics (puberty)
2. Behavioural effects
Oestrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone are regulated by ___ and ___, which are in turn controlled by ______ which is stored in the _______.
LH
FSH
GnRH
Hypothalamus
What are the main effects of Progesterone?
1. Secondary Sexual Characteristics
2. Behaviour
3. Maintains pregnancy
What are the main effects of Testosterone?
1. development of primary male characteristics in the foetus
2. Enleargement of male reproductive organs
3. Development of secondary male characteristics
4. Involved in Spermatogenesis along with FSH
The Sry is the ____ ___ gene on the _ chromosome.
sex determining
Y
The Sry gene cell produces Sry _____ which causes cells in core indifferent gonad to ______, the gonad develops into a _____.
Protein
proliferate
testis
If no Y chromosome is present after fertilisation the cells proliferate into
ovaries
Gender is determined by the presence or absence of the
Y chromosome
Hormones form the are largely responsible for making the
male fetus develop differently from the female fetus.
The developing testes produces several hormones while the early ovaries produce
little hormones
Other cells in the embryo receive testicular hormones and start to develop ____ _____, if not exposed to testicular hormones then they develop _____ _____.
masculine characteristics
feminine Characteristics
At embryonic stage all individuals have the precursor tissue for
either male or female development
Gonads develop into either
ovaries or testis
The early fetus has a ____ _____, that later developed into a clitoris or penis.
genital tubercle
The early fetus has two sets of ducts that connects to the indifferent gonads known as the
wolffian and mullerian ducts
In _____ the mullerian ducs develop into ____, ______ & _____ and the wolffian ducts shrink.
females
fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina
In _____ the wolffian ducts develop into ____, ______ & _____ and the mullerian ducts shrink.
males
epididymus, vas deferens and seminal vesicle
What are the 8 steps towards Adult gender identity?
1. Genetic Sex
2. Gonadal Sex
3. Hormonal Sex
4. Phenotype sex
5. Sex assignment
6. Early Gender identity
7. Pubertal Gender Identity
8. Adult Gender Identity
The development of wolffian ducts is promoted by steroidal....
androgen testosterone
Shrinkage of the mullerian ducts is caused by protein _____ _____ _____ (MRH).
Mullerian Regression Hormone
If there is no testis to produce testosterone and MRH then wolffian ducts.....
don't develop and the mullerian ducts develop unimpeded.
Testosterone causes tissues around urethra to form the ___ ___ and also forms the ___ and ____.
prostate gland
scrotum and penis
The effects of testosterone are also aided by the conversion of testosterone into another steroidal androgen called....
dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
People with one sex chromosome (XO) have what's known as
Turners Syndrome
The main effects of Turner's syndrome are...
1. Poorly developed ovaries
2. face is triangular
3. Webbed Neck
4. Nipple spreadage
5. Mild mental retardation
6. Delayed secual development
Sometimes females XX that are exposed to too much androgen in utero may be
masculinised
In human some genetic mutations may result in a female exposed to angrogens in utero known as
Congential Adrenal Hyperplasia
In Congential Adrenal Hyperplasia the adrenal glands fail to produce enough ______ and newborns have an ______ appearance.
corticosteroids
intersex
Masculination is the
enhancement or production of male characteristics
The enhancement or production of female characteristics is known as
Feminisation
The suppression or disruption of male characteristics is known as
demasculinisation
Defeminisation is the
suppression or disruption of female characteristics
Male testicular steroids that masculinize the genetalia can also masculinize the ______ ______ and thus alter behaviour appropriate for its sex
developing brain
Sexual dimorphism in the nervous system includes differences in the
number, size and shape of neurones, as well as number of synapses
What are some examples of the effects of sexual dimorphism?
differences in hypothalamus and spinal cord between males and females
Females outperform males in ____ tasks, males outperform females in ____ tasks.
verbal
spatial
Differential treatment can affect developing brain and can contribute to later
sex differences in behaviour
What are 6 influences of the development of sexual orientation?
1. parenting
2. parenting as a response to dealing with sex atypical children
3. biological factors
4. brain differences
5. genetic makeup
6. possible evolutionary benefit
Gender identity refers to the
subjective sense of one's own sex
Reproductive anatomy is ____ determined
hormonally
Environment has a major but not _______ effect.
exclusive
Genetic identity and sexual preference appear to have both ____ and _____ bases
genetic and environemental