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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Encoding
The processing of information into the memory system -- for example, by extracting meaning
Storage
The retention of encoded information over time
Retrieval
The process of getting information out of memory storage
Sensory Memory
The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
Short-term Memory
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
Long-term Memory
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system; includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
Working Memory
A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
Automatic Processing
Unconscious encoding on incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
Effortful Processing
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Rehearsal
The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
Spacing Effect
The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention that is achieved through massed study or practice
Serial Position Effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Visual Encoding
The encoding of picture images
Acoustic Encoding
The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
Semantic Encoding
The encoding of meaning, such as the meaning of words
Imagery
Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
Mnemonics
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Chunking
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units, often occurs automatically
Ionic Memory
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
Echoic Memory
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within three or four seconds
Long-term Potentiation
An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
Flashbulb Memory
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Amnesia
The loss of memory
Implicit Memory
Retention independent of conscious recollection
Explicit Memory
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
Hippocampus
A neural center that is located in the limbic system
Recall
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
Recognition
A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
Relearning
A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
Priming
The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
Priming
The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
Mood-congruent Memory
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
Proactive Interference
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
Retroactive Interference
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Repression
In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Misinformation Effect
Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
Source Amnesia
Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined