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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Encoding vs. Storage vs. Retrieval
Encoding => process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory

Storage => process of keeping or maintaining information in memory

Retrival=> process of bringing to mind information that has been stored in memory
Chunking vs. rehearsal
Chunking=> memory strategy that involves grouping or organizing bits of information into larger units, which are easier to remember

Rehearsal=> act of purposely repating information to maintain it in short-term memory
Episodic memory vs. semantic memory
Episodic=> type of declarative memory that records events as they have been subjectively experienced

Semantic=> type of declarative memory that stores general knowledge, or objective facts and information
declarative vs. nondeclarative memory
declarative=> stores facts, information, and personal life events that can be brought to mind verbally or in the form of images and then declared or stated

nondeclarative=> stores motor skils, habits, and simple classically conditioned responses
stages of information processing
1. visually
2. acoustically
3. semantically
measuring memory (3 tasks)
recall, recognition, relearning
Elizabeth Loftus' view of memory
A memory is a reconstruction- an account pieced together from a few highlights, using information that may or may not be accurate
flashbulb memory
extremely vivid memory of the conditions surrounding one's first hearing the news of a suprising, shocking, or highly emotional event.
Serial position effect: primary and secondary
Primary effect=> tendency to recall the first items in a sequence more readily than the middle items

Secondary=> tendency to recall the last items in a sequence more readily than those in the middle
Ebbinghaus' research paradigm
nonsense syllable=> consonant-vowel-consonant combination that does not spell a word and is used in memory research
Causes of forgetting
encoding failure=> cause of forgetting that occurs when information was never put into long-term memory

interference=>information or associations sotred either before or after a given memory hinder the ability to remember it
Proactive vs. retroactive interfering
proactive=> occurs when information or experiences already stored in long-term memory hinder the ability to remember newer information

retroactive=> happens when new learning interferes with the ability to remmber previously learned information
Eyewitness errors in line-up identifications
Eyewitnesses to crimes typically identify suspects from a lineup, eyewitnesses may mistakenly identify the suspect in the lineup because the person look familiar
Context and state dependent learning/memory
tendency to recall information better if one is the same pharmacologial or psychological state as when the information was encoded.
causes of motivated forgetting
forgetting through suppresion or repression in order to protect oneselt from material that is painful, frightening, or otherwise unpleasant
massed practice vs. distributed practice
massed=> learning in one long practice session without rest periods

distributed=> break up into several sessions
how mental set is defined
tendency to apply a familiar strategy to solve a problem even through another approach might be better