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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Learning
the process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior
Unconditioned Stimulus
a stimulus that leads to an observable response prior to any training
Unconditioned response
the observable response that is produced automatically, on presentation of an unc. stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus
the neutral stimulus that is paired with the unconditioned stimulus during classical conditioning
Conditioned Response
the acquired response that is produced by the conditioned stimulus in anticipation of the unconditioned stimulus
• Extinction
repeated absence of UCS, CR stops
• Spontaneous recovery
conditioned responding that has disappeared in extinction recovers spontaneously with the passage of time
• Inhibition
learning to suppress a learned response
• Generalization
a new stimulus produces a response similar to the one produced by the conditioned stimulus
• Discrimination
the response to a new stimulus is different from the response to the original CS
• Higher Order Conditioning
an established CS is presented immediately after a new event; after several pairing, this new event may come to elicit a response.
4. Operant Conditioning
procedure for studying how organisms learn about the consequences of their actions. (instrumental conditioning)
5. Law of Effect
response followed by a satisfying/unsatisfying consequence, it will be strengthened or weakened
6. Shaping
reinforcing successive approximations (partial responses) to a desired behavior
7. Pos. Reinforcement
an event, when presented after a response, increases the likelihood of a resonse occurring again
Negaive Reinforcement
strenthen a response by reducing or removing an aversive stimuli
8. Aversive Control
influencing behavior by the use of unpleasant stimuli
9. Observational Learning
Learning by observing the esperience of others
10. Modeling
Natural tendency to imitate behavior of significant others.
Abnormal Behavior
• Atypical
• Undesirable
• Maladaptive
• Unjustifiable
• AXIS I
not me (ego dystonic
a. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Excessive worry and anxiety about a # of events
b. OCD
a disorder that minefsts itself through persistent and uncontrollable thoughts, called obsessions, or by the need to perform repetitive acts, called compulsions.
3. Phobias
fear of things
4. Social Phobia
fear of evaluationg and scrutiny of others.
5. Panic Disorder
episode in which intense anxity and physiological symptoms are suddenly experienced
6. Agoraphobia
fear of leaving home
d. Similarities- eating disorders
1. Typical profile
2. Preoccupation with dieting, food, weight
3. Discomfort with others
4. Severe changes habits, mood
5. Hyperactivity
6. Fatigue, headaches
7. Approval seeking
8. Problems with interpersonal relationghips
9. Want to be thin
Differences - eating disorders
1. anorexia- denial of abnormal eating pattern. Bulimia-recognizes abnormal eating pattern
2. anorexia-introverted. Bulimia- extroverted
3. anorexia- turns from food to cope. Bulimia- opposite
4. anorexia-distorted body image. Bulimia- dissatisfaction with body weight and shape
5. anorexia- preoccupied with losing more lbs. bulimia- precoccupied with attaining an ideal.
Sexual dysfunction
impairment in desire and ability to achieve it
Paraphilia
unconventional sex
Somatofm Disorders - • Conversion Disorder
extreme, impossible, la belle indifference
Somatofm Disorders - • Pain disorder
pain disrupts life, nothing medical explains it.
Somatofm Disorders - • Hypochondriasis
due to misappraisal of bodyily symptoms, fear of serious disease
Somatofm Disorders - • Body Dismorphic Disorder
warped notion regarding a part of the body, focus on how deformed it is.
Dissociative Disorders• Amnesia-loss of memory
loss of memory
Dissociative Disorders• Fugue- flight from present life
flight from present life
Dissociative Disorders• DID-extreme, separate, not integrated
extreme, separate, not integrated
Mood Disorders• Major Depressive Disorder
most prevalent mood disorder (5 of symptoms)
Mood Disorders• Dysthymia
sever depression buy longer lasting (2 of symptoms)
• Bipolar Disorder I
mania is most significant
• Bipolar Disorder II
major depression is most significant with hypomanc
• Cyclothymia
less severe bipolarity
Suicide
• Black and white thinking
• Ambivalent- mixed feelings or contradictory ideas
• Unendurable psychological pain
• Search solution
Schizophrenia
split the mind; split from reality
Hallucination
disruptions in perceptions
Delusions
disturbances in the content of thought
Word salad
speaking nonsense
AXIS II
this is what I am; deal with it (ego syntonic)
Personality Disorders
disorder of self
Person. Dis. Cluster A
a. Paranoid Personality Disorder
distrust, suspicious
Person. Dis. Cluster A
b. Schizoid Personality Disorder
indifference to interpersonal relationships; restricted emotional range (appears cool, aloof)
Person. Dis. Cluster A
c. Schizotypal Personality Disorder
interpersonal deficits (appears odd)
Person. Dis. Cluster B
a. Borderline Personality Disorder
instability in interpersonal relationhip, self image
Person. Dis. Cluster B
b. Narcissistic Personality Disorder
grandiosity; need for admiration
Person. Dis. Cluster B
c. Histrionic Personality Disorder
drama queen; attention seeking
Person. Dis. Cluster B
d. Antisocial
disregard for and violation for the rights of others
Person. Dis. Cluster C
a. Dependent Personality Disorder
need to be taken care of
Person. Dis. Cluster C
b. Avoidant Personality Disorder
Social inhibition, upset by lack of social relations
Person. Dis. Cluster C
c. OCD
preoccupation with orderliness
Howard Gardners 8 types of Intelligence
• Linguistic
• Logical(math)
• Spatial- navigation skills
• Musical
• Kinesthetic (body)
• Interspersonal
• Intrapersonal
• Nature
emotional intelligence (EQ)
• Interspersonal
• Intrapersonal
Sternberg- 3 types of intelligence
• Analytic intelligence
• Creative intelligence
• Practical intelligence
3 principles of test construction
• Standardization- so score can be compared to tohers
• Reliability- yield dependently consistent scores
• Validity-measures what it is supposes
Wais-R
• Vocabulary
• Block design
IQ Test
• 130+- very superior
• 120-129- superior
• 110-119- high avg.
• 90-109- avg.
• 80-89- low avg.
• 70-79- borderline
• 69-under- mentally retarded
Genogram
• diagram of family history
Intelligence inherited
biology override environment
Bio-Medical Therapy- Drug therapy
• antipyschotics
• anti depressants
• lithium
• antianxiety
• electroconvulsive therapy
• psychosurgery
Psychoanalysis
(insight- cant understand problems of today without understanding problems of early relationships
Behavioral Therapy
(no insight- just change in behavior)
• behavior modification
(rewards)- identify target behavior; establish reinforcemnt; enlist social support
• systematic desensitization
baby steps
• aversive conditioning
electric shock therapy
• modeling
follow the leader therapy
• flooding
exposure to thing feared all in 1 session
Cognitive Therapy
how you think, how you feel
Rational Emotive Therapy
Most direct form of therapy
Humanistic Therapy
non direct therapy - hel;p the client gain insight into his or her own fndamental self-worth and value as a human
Group Therapy
join others with similar problems
General Adaptation Syndrome
• phase 1-alarm reaction
• phase 2- stage of resistence
• phase 3-stage of exhaustion
Stress
leads to a decrease in lymphocytes which leads to sickness
Lymphocytes
Good soldiers in fight against sickness
External source of stress
life events
Personal Appraisal of events
healthy person- challenge event; sick person- threatened by event
Personality types
• healthy Person- easygoing, self-confident, optimistic
• sick person- reactive, low self-efficacy, pessimistic
Coping with Stress (personal habits)
• healthy person- nonsmoking, regular exercise, good nutrition
• sick person- smoking, no exercise, poor nutrition
Social Support for stress
• healthy person- enduring level of social support
• sick person- lacking social support
Outcome of stress
• healthy person- tendency toward health
• sick person- tendency toward illness
Motivation - • Instinc Theory (bio)
we do what we do b/c there is the instinct to do so
Motivation• Psychoanalytic Theory (psych)
libido: sexual and aggressive energy; we are motivated due to sublimation
• Behaviorist theory (social)
things we’re rewarded for we continue to do.
Motivation• Magic marker study
intrinsic motivation; controlling rewards decreases intrinsic motivation, informative rewards increase intrinsic motivation
Motivation• Humanistic theory (psych)
least to most-self actualism, esteem needs, social needs, safety needs, psychological needs
Motivation• Cognitive Theory (psych/social)
motivated b/c it tells me who I am in reference to others
Motivation• Yerkes-Dodson Theory (law) (bio-psych)
motivated until optimal level of arousal is reached (will be different for everyone)
Motivation• Opponent Process Theory (bio)
Biologically wired to be in balance
Facial expressions
universal
Gestures
Cultural
Jame-Lange Theory of Emotion
body reaction drives the subjective exerience of emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
body reactions and subjective experiences occur together, but independently
Two-factor theory of Emotion
cognitive interpretation, or appraisal, of a body reaction drives the subjective experience of emotion
Common Factors of Happiness
• Control
• Optimism
• Faith
• Flow
• Close relationships
• Purpose
• Humor
• Helping Others