Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/77

Click to flip

77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Socrates and Plato
mind separate from body

think with hearts, feel with bowels
Rene Descartes
brain fluid was soul/spirit

spirit flowed through nerves to muscles, creating movement

memories/experiences opened pores in brain for more spirits
Francis Bacon
observed how humans tried to reason things
John Locke
observed how humans reason things more than necessary

empiricism
empiricism
the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should rely on observation and experimentation
structuralism
an early school of psy. that used reflection of one's own mind to explore human nature

ineffective because it required smart, verbal people and results were unreliable
Willhelm Wundt
established the first psy. labratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany

structuralism

introspection
functionalism
a school of psy. that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function
William James
founder of functionalism
psychology
the science of behavior and mental processes
nature-nurture issue
the controversy of whether genes or experiences cause behavior
behavior
what an organism does
mental processes
experiences we infer from behavior (sensations, dreams, beliefs)
Nurture works on what...
...nature has already given
Neuroscience
How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
Basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Clinical psy
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
psychiatry
a branch of medicine dealing with pyschological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide drug treatments
hindsight bias
the tendancy to believe after learning an outcome, that one would have forseen it
theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by theory
operational definition
a statement of the procedures used to deine research variables
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations
scientific method
Theories
Hypothesis
Research

A self-correcting process for asking questions and observing answers
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal priniciples
survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them

wording can affect results of same poll
population
all cases in a group from which samples may be drawn for a study
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each memeber has an equal chance of inclusion
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without manipulating and controling the situation
Structuralist (person)
Willhelm Wundt
introspection
looking within; training people to look into their own minds
functionalist (person)
William James
Behaviorists (2 people)
Watson and Skinner
Unconscious Mind
part of the mind below awareness

hypnosis and dream interpretation

freud
free associations
talk about whatever comes into mind

freud
cognition
thoughts, mental proceses
Three goals of psychology
to accurately describe and measure behavior and mental processes

to predict, control and influence

to explain using theories and hypothesis
positive correlation
as one variable changes (increase, decreases) the other variable change in the same way
negative correlation
as one variable changes (increases, decreases) the other variable changes in the opposite way
correlation indicates...
...possibility, not fact
Illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
experiment
a research to observe the effect of behavior and mental processes
placebo
an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterise the active agent
double-blind procedure
an experiment procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the participants have recieved the treatment
placebo effect
any effect on behavior caused by a placebo
experimental condition
the condition of an experience that exposes participants to the treatment
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance
independant variable
the experimental variable that is manipulated
dependant variable
the variable that is not controled
Experiments enable researchers to learn by...
manipulating the factors of interest

controling other factors
descriptive experiment
to observe and record behavior
correlational experiment
to detect naturally occuring relationships; to assess how well one variable predicts another
experimental experiment
to explore cause and effect
steps for experimenting on people
obtain the informed consent of potential participants

protect them from harm and discomfort

fully explain the research afterwards

universities screen research proposals and see that they meet regulations
chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain genes
DNA
a complex molecule containing genetic information
genes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing protien.
gene complexes
many genes acting in concert and influencing human traits
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
mutation
a random error in gene replication
evolutionary psy
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
gender
in psy, the characteristics (whether biologically or socially influenced) by which people define male and female
behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
environment
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
temperment
a person's characteristic emotional activity and intensity
norm
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior
personal space
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
role
a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
gender role
a set of expected behaviors for males and females
gender identity
one's sense of being male or female
gender-typing
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
gender schema theory
the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly
trivial truth
the truth is true and the opposite is false
great truth
the truth is true and the opposite is also true