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87 Cards in this Set

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Cognition
mental activity such as thinking or representing info.
Analogical representaion
a mental representaion that has some of the physicll characteristics of an object
symbolic representaton
an absrtact mental representation that doesnt correspond to the physucal features of an object or idea
concept
a mentalrepresentation that groups or categorizes objects, events, ir relations around commmon themes
defining sttribute model
the idea that a concept is characterized by a list of features that are necessary to determine if an object is a member of a category
prototype model
an approach to object categorization that is based on the premise that within each category, some members are more representative than others
deductive reasoning
a form of reasoning in which logic is used to draw a specific conclusion from given premises
inductive reasoning
a form a reasoning in which we develop general rules after observing specific instances
heuristics
in problem solving,shortcuts used to minimize the amount of thinking that must be done when moving from step to step in a solution space
availability heuristic
making a decision based on the answer that most easily comes to mind
representativeness heuristic
a rule for categorization based on how similar the person or object is to our prototypes for that category
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for and believe evidence that fits our existing views
framing
the effects of presentation on how info is percieved
insight
the realization of a solution to a problem
restructuring
a new way of thinking about a problem that aids its solution
mental set
a problem solving strategy that has worked in the past
functional fixedness
a tendency in a prob. solving to think of objects only as they are most commonly used
intelligence
the human ability to use knowledge, solve probs., understand complex ideas,learn quickly, and adpat to environmental challanges
mental age
an assessment of a childs intellectual standing relative to that of his of her peers; determined by a comparison of the childs test score w the avg. score for children of ea. chronological age
intelligence quotient (IQ)
the number computed by dividing a childs estimated mental age by the gilds chronological age, and then multiplying this number by 100
general intelligence (g)
the idea that one general factor underlies all mental abilities
fluid intelligence
info. processing in novel or complex circumstances
crystallized intelligence
knowledge acquired through experience and the ability to use that knowledge
multiple intelligences
the idea that people can show different skills in a variety of different domains
emotional intelligence (EQ)
a form of social intelligence that emphasizes the ability to percieve, undersatnd, manage, and use emotions to guide thoughts and actions
emotion
feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological processes, and cognitive beliefs
mood
a diffuse and long-lasting emotional state that influences rather than interrupts thought and behavior
stress
a pattern of behavioral and physiological responses to events that match or exceed and organisms abilities
health psychology
the field of psychological science concerned w events that affect physical well-being
display rules
cultural rules that govern how and when emotions are exhibited
somatic markers
bodily reactions that arise from the emotional evaluation of an actions consequences
guilt
a negative emotional state assoc. w an internal experience of anxiety, tension, and agitation, in which a person feels responsible for causing an adverse state
alexithymia
a disorder involving a lack of the subjectuve experience of emotion
primary emotions
evolutionary adaptive emotions that humans share across cultures; they are assoc. w specific biological and physical states
secondary emotions
blends of primary emotions, including states such as remorse, guilt, submission, and anticipation
circumplex model
an approach to understanding emotion in which two basic factors of emotion are spatially arranged in a circle, formed around the intersections of the core dimessions of affect
James- Lange theory of emotions
a theory that suggests that the experience of emotion is elicited by a physiological response to a particular stimlus or situation
facial feedback hypothesis
the idea that facial expressions trigger the experience of emotion
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
a theory that asserts that emotion-producing stimuli from the evironment elicit both an emotional and a physical reaction
two-factor theory of emotion
a theory that proposes that a situation evokes both a physiological response, such a arousal, and a cognitive interpretation
misattribution of arousal
an emotion label is derived from the wrong source
excitation transfer
a form of misattribution in which residual physiological arousal caused by one event is transferred to a new stimulus
rumination
thinking about, elaborating, and foucusing on undesired thoughts or feelings, which prolongs, rather than alleviates, a negative mood
cerbral asymmetry
an emotional pattern assoc.. w unequal activation of the left and right frontal lobes
stressor
an environmental event or stimulus that threatens an organism
coping response
any reponse and organism makes to avoid, escape from, or minimize an aversive stimulus
fight-or-flight response
the physiological preparedness of animals to deal w danger
tend-and-befriend reponse
the argument that females are more likely to protect and care for their offspring and form social alliances than flee of fight in reponse to threat
general adaptation syndrome
a consistent pattern of reponse to stress, that consists of three stages: alarm, resisitance, and exhaustion
Type A behavior
a pattern of behavior characterized by competitiveness, achievement orientation, aggressivess, hostility, restlessness, inability to relax, and impatience w others
Type B behavior
a pattern of behavior charaterized by relaxed, noncompetitive, easygoing, and accommodating behavior
immune system
the bodys mechanism for dealing w invading mircoorganisms, such as allergies, bacteria, and viruses
lymphocytes
specialized white blood cells known as B cells, T cells, and natrual killer cells that make up the immune system
primary apprasial
part of the coping process that involves making decisions about whether a stimulus is stressful, benign, or irrelevant
secondary apprasial
part of the coping in which people try to prevent having an emotional reponse to a stressor
problem-focused coping
a type of coping in which people take direct steps to confront or minimize a stressor
positive reapprasial
a cognitive process in which people focus on possible good things in their current siutation
hardiness
a personality trait that enables people to percieve stressors as controllable challanges
social support
a network of other people who can provide help, encouragement, and advice
buffering hypothesis
the idea that other people can provid direct support in helping individuals cope w stressful events
body-mass index (BMI)
a ratio of body weight to height used to measure obesity
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by excessive fear of becoming fat and thus refusal to eat
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by dieting,binge eating, and purging
developmental psychology
the study of changes in physiology, cognition, and social behavior over the life span
teratogens
environmental agents that harm the embryo or fetus
teratogens
environmental agents that harm the embryo of fetus
synaptic pruning
a process whereby the synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are preserved, and those that are not are lost
critical period
time in which certain experiences must occur for noraml brain development, such as exposure to visual info. during infancy for the normal dvevlopment of the visual pathways of the brain
attachment
a strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances
orienting reflex
the tendency for human to pay more attention to novel stimuli
schemas
hypothetical cognitive strutures that help us percieve, organize, process, and use info.
assimilation
the porcess by which a new experience is placed into an exisiting schema
accommodation
thr process by which a schema is adadpted or expanded to incorporate a new experience that doesnt easily fit into an exisiting schema
sensorimotor stage
the first stage in Piagets theory of cognitive development, during which infants aquire info. about the world throuhg their senses and respond reflexively
obejct permanence
the understanding that an object continues to exist even when it cannot be seen
preoperational stage
the second stage in Piagets theory of cognitive development, during which children begin to think about and understand operations in ways that are reversible
formal operational stage
the final stage in Piagets theory of cognitive development; it involves the ability to think abstractly and to formulate and test hypotheses through deductive logic
infantile amnesia
the inablility to remember events from early childhood
source amnesia
a type of amnesia that occurs when a person remembers an event but cannot remember where they encountered the info.
theory of mind
the term used to describe the ability to explain and predict other people's behavior as a result of recognizing their mental state
telegraphic speech
the tendency for children to speak using rudimentary sentences that are missing words and grammatical makrings but follow a logical syntax
social development
the maturation of skills or abilities that enable people to live in a world w other people
adolescence
the transition period between childhood and adulthood
gender
a term that refers to the culturally construted differences btw. males and females
gender identity
personal beliefs about whether one is male or female
gender roles
the charateristics assoc. w men and women b/c of cultural influence or learning
gender schemas
cognitive strucutres that influence how people percieve the behaviors of men and women