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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Person perception
the process of forming impressions of others
Key Sources of Information based on Perception
observations, appearance, verbal behavior, actions, nonverbal messages, situations
Snap judgments (Susan Fiske)
are those made quickly and based on only a few bits of information and preconceived notions.
Systematic judgments (Susan Fiske)
When it comes to selecting a mate, boss, or an employee it iis essential that your impressions are accurate...these people will affect their happiness and well-being.
Attributions
are inferenes that people draw about the causes of their own behavior and events (internal and external attributions)
Confirmation bias
the tendency to behave toward others in ways that confirm your expectations about them
self-fulfilling prophecy
occurs when expectations about a person cause the person to behave in ways that confirm the expectations
Ingroup
"us"
Outgroup
"them"
Outgroup homogeneity effect
all ougroup members are the same, while all ingroup members are unique
Stereotypes
are widely held beliefs hat people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group (what-is-beautiful-is-good stereotype)
Fundamental attribution error (Lee Ross)
refers to the tendency to ecplain other people's behabior as the result of personal, rather than situational factors
Defensive attribution
a tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way (rape example)
Primary effecy
occurs when initial information carries more weight than subsequent information
Prejudice
is a negative attitude toward members of a group
Discrimination
involves behaving different, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group
Old fashioned vs modern discrimination
old fashioned is outward violent discrimination, whereas modern discrimation is more subtle, and people may harbor negative attitudes but express them only when they feel that such view are justified or if it is safe to do so.
Subordinate goals (reducing prejudice)
goals that require two or more groups to work together to achieve mutual ends
Persuasion
involves the communication of arguments and information intended to change anotehr person's attitudes
Attitudes
beliefs and feelings about people objects, and ideas
Source
the person who sends a communication
Receiver
the person to whom the message is sent
Message
the information transmitted by the source
Channel
the medium through which the message is sent
Elaboration likelihood model
an individual's thoughts about a persuasive message (rather than the actual message itself) will determine whether attitude change will occur (central route; receivers profcess persuasive messages mindfully by thinking about the central arguments and peripheral route; when the receiver is persuaded by cues that are peripheral to the message)
Conformity (Asch and the line test)
occurs when people yield to real or imagined social pressure
Compliance
occurs when people yield to social pressure in their public behavior, even though their private beliefs have not changed
Normative influence
operates when people conform to social norms for fear of negative social consequences
Informational influence
operates when people look to others for how to behave in ambiguous situations
Bystander effect
the tendency for individuals to be less likely to provided needed help when others are present than when they are alone
Obedience
is a form of compliance that occurs when people follow directo commands usually from someone in a position of authority
Stanley Milgram
Shock test
Foot-in-the-door technique
involves getting people to agree to a small request to increase the changes that they will aree to a large request later
Lowball technique
involves geting someone to commit to an attravtive proposition before its hidden costs are revealed
Reciprocity principle
the rule that one should pay back in kind what one receives from others
Door-in-the-face techinique
involves making a large request that is likely to be turned down in order to increase the changes that people will agree to a smaller request later
Mindfulness operates when people
make systematic judgments
Which of the follwoing is not a type of cognitive distortion in perception?
a) Cateogorizing
B) "Old-fashioned" discrimination
c) Stereotypes
d) Defensive attribution
Which of the following is not a theme in a person perception
a) Efficiency
b) Selectivity
c) Consistency
D) Mindfulness
"Old fashioned" discrimination is ____; modern discrimination is ____.
blatant, subtle
Which of the follwoing is a cause of prejudice?The reciprocity principle
a) Mindfulness
B) Authoritatian personality
c) Jigsaw classrooms
d) Activities based on superordinate goals
Receivers who are forewarned that someone will try to persuade them will most likely:
not be very open to persuasion
Compared to attitudes formed via the peripheral route, those formed via the central route:
are hard to change
When people change their outward behavior but not their private beliefs, ____ is operating.
compliance
Conforminty behavior is
more common in collectivist countries.
WHen charaties send prospective doners free addres labels and the like, which of the folowing social influence principles are they using?
the reciprocity principle