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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
parietal lobes
one of the four major sections of the cerebral cortex, situated in fron of the occipital lobes, that is involved in touch sensation and in monitoring the body's position in space
the underlying genetic composition of an organism
Occipital lobes
one of the four major sections of the cerebral cortex, located at the back of thecerebtral hemisphesres, that is primarily responsible for visual processing
fraternal twisn
twins who defvelop in the womb from the union of two separate sperms and eggs (also known as dizygotic tiwns)
The entire area composed of the termnal button of one neuron, the synaptic cleft, tand the dendrite of another neuron
the philosophical beliefe that the mind and body are one and the same thing
Three major regions of the brain
the ability of the brain to alter its neural connections
A part of teh hindbrain that regulates and coordinates basic motor activities anbd may also play a role in learning
the basic biochemical unit of inheritance that is located on and transmitted by chromosomes
Computerized axial tomograph (CAT) scan
A brain-imagin technique in which thousand of x-ray photographs of the brain are taken and then combined to construct a cross-section brain picture
the inability to recognize or express language as a result of damage to brain tissues, such as after a stroke
Chemical messengers released by the synaptic vesicles that travel across the synaptic cleft and either excite or inhibit adjacent neurons
ical twins
twins who develop from the union of the same egg and sperm, and thus, share exactly the samegenotype (also know as monozygotic twins)
the uppermost portion of the forebrain, which is the thinking center of the brain
behavious genetics
the study of how the genotype and the environmnet of an orgainxm influend ints behavious
Specialized cells in ther nervous system that send and receive information
cerebral lateralization
the degree to which the rigth or left hemispheres sonctrol various cognitive and behavioual functions
A part of the forebrain that is the brain's sensory relay station, sending mesages from the senses to higher parts of the brain
Mind-body dualism
the philosophical belief that the body is separate from the jind
Sympathetic nervous system
The hpart of the autnomic nervous system that activates the body's enerby resources to deal with threatening situations
Sex chromosome
one of 23 pairs of chromosomes that determines whetere someone is male or female
Autonomic nervous system
A division of the peripheral nervous system that controls movement of nonskeletal musles, such as the heart and lung muscles, over which people have little or no voluntary control
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
The complex molecular strands of a chromosome that ocntains thousands of different geners, located at fixed positon
Somatic nervous system
A division of the peripheral nervous system that rransfmits commands to the voluntary skeletal muscles and receives sosnsry infomration from the muscles and the skin
The visible and measurable traits of an organism
Functional magnetic resonance imagin (fMRI)
A brain-imagin technique that measure over a few seconds the average neural azctivity in different brain regions by showing fluctiuation in blood oxygen leverls
threadlike structures carrying genetic information adn found in every cell of the body
Part of a neuron
Myelin Sheath
Terminal Buttons
Dopamine (DA)
A neurotransmitter that promotes and facilitates movement, as well as influencing thought and emotion
Acton potential
The brief shift in a neuron's electrical charge that travels down the axon
Cerebrospinal fludi
A clear, cushjioning fluid secreted by the brain and circulated inside and around the brain and spinal cord
Cerebral hemisphers
the two main parts of the cerebral cortex
troencephalograph (EEG)
An instrument that recoreds "waves" of electrical activity in the brain using metal electrodes placed on a person's scalp
Region of the brain above the hindbrain that contains the reticular formation
Cerebral cortex
The thin outer surface of the cerebrum, containing about 80 percent of the brain's total mass, largelu responsible for higher-order mental processes
Resting potential
The stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron
Spinal cord
The slender, tube-shaped part of the central nervous system that extends from the base of the brain, down the center of the back, and is made up of a bundle of nerves
The two sex glands, called ovaries in females and testes in males
Corpus callosum
a thick band of nerve fibers connecting the right and left cerebral hemishpers that tranmist information between them
Adrenal glands
Two glands, located near the kidneys, that secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, wihc activate the sympathetic nervous sytem
A part of the forebrain involved inregulating basic biological processes, such as eating, drinking, sexual activity, emotion, and a stable body temperature
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
A brain-imagin technique which produces three-dimensiona images of the brain's soft tissues by detectin magnetic activity from nuclear particles in brain molecules
Glial cells
Non-neuron cells that supply the neurons with support, nutrients, and insulation
Limbic system
a part of the forebrain consisting of structures that influence fear and aggreasion (amygdala) and the acquisition and consolidation of new information in memorey (hippocampus)
Neuron - Axon
An extension of the soma that sends information in teh form of electrochemical impulses to other neurons
Peripheral nervous system
That portion of the nervous system containing all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord
Thyroid gland
The gland, located just below the larynx in the neck, that controls metabolism
A bundle of axons from many neurons that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system
an automatic, involuntary repsponse to sensory stimuli, many of which are facilitated by the spinal nerves
Neuron - Soma
The cell body of the neuron that contains the nucleus and other components that preserve and noursih it
Pituitary gland
The body's "master" gland, located in the base of the brain, whose hormones stimulate and regulate the rest of the endocrine system
A part of the hindbrain that is concerned with sleep and arousal
Parasympathetic nervous system
The part of the autonomic nervous system that acts to conserve and maintain the body's energy resources
Central nervous system
That portion of the nervous system located in the bony central core of the body and consisting of the brain and spinal cord
Neuron - Myelin sheath
A protective coating of fatty cells around an axon that hastens the transmission of the electrochemical charge
Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
A brain-imagin techniqe that measures over several mintues the average amount of neural activity in different brain regions by showing each region's consumption of sugar glucose, the brain's chemical fuel
Region of the brain above the spinal cord that contains the medulla, pons, and cerebellum
A family of neurtransmitter that are similar to morphine and that play an important role in the experience of pleasure and the control of pain
Chemical signals manufactured and secreted into the blood in one part of the body that affects other parts of the body
A part of the hindbrain that controls breathing, heart rate, swallowing, and digestion, as well as alowing us to maintain an upright posture
Neuron - Dendrites
Branchlike extensions of the soma that receive information from other neurons
Acetylcholine (ACh)
A neurotransmitter involved in muscle contractions and memory information
Endocrine System
A network of glands in various parts of the body that manufactures and secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream
Region of the brain above the midbrain that contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system
frontal lobes
One of the four major sections of the cerebral cortex, situatied in teh front of the cerebral hemispheres and behind the forehead, that is involved in teh coordination of movement and hier mental processes
Reticular formation
A part of the midbrain involved in the regulation and maintenance of conscousness
temporal lobes
one of the four major sections of the cerebral corex, located below the parietal lobes and near the temples, that is important in audition and language