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13 Cards in this Set

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Theories regarding what "motivates" human behavior.

Descr "instinct theory"?
The motive is "biologically programmed" inside of us. We act as instinct to satisfy basic needs.

ie need for food, water, liking
Theories regarding what "motivates" human behavior.

Descr "Drive Reduction Theory"?
We engage in behavior is out of need to reduce arousal caused from drives. In a state of deprivation, that produces a sense of tension or arousal in us and we act to eliminate/reduce the tension by satisfying that drive.

ie we are motivated to eat to reduce tension in our stomach called hunger pangs
Theories regarding what "motivates" human behavior.

Descr Abraham Maslows 1954 "humanistic theory"?
He did not like drive reduction theories b/c he felt they were all survival based. He believed not only are we motivated to meet survival needs but also to satisfy growth needs.

ie Humans can willfully delay gratification in order to achieve some higher goal that we perceive will provide us with personal fulfillment
Descr Maslows 5 heirarchy of needs?

What is diff btwn vertical hierarchy vs horizontal continuum.
He felt that in order to satisfy these needs we must have satisfied the previous one first (vertical hierarchy)however b/c there are examples of accomplished/self actualized w/o satisfying earlier examples they feel it is a (horizontal continuum)

1 Phys needs - eat, drink, air, sex

2 Safety - Shelter and personal safety

ie economic security, comfort, peace

3 Love and belonging - acceptance, group membership

4 Esteem - Feel like we are competent at something

ie recog of strength, prestige and intelligence

5 Self Actualization - fulfil our unique potential

ie higher learning, challenging projects
What is Maslow's "Peak Moments"?
Along the path to self actualization we experience peak moments when we are validated that we have done something well

ie college graduation, winning a game
Theories regarding what "motivates" human behavior.

Descr Bexton's "Stimulus Motives"?
In contrast to (drive reduction theory), we are motivated to experience stimulus.
Disc Bexton's study of sensory deprivation of college students regarding ones "stimulus motives theory".
He paid students at McGill U $20.00/day to stay in an isolation room, strapped to a table, all day w only enough room to breath, eat, sleep, and use restroom.

Most of the students stopped the study on the first day b/c couldn't tolerate the lack of stimulation and those who continued reported hallucinations (brains form of self stimulation).

THF Concluded:
Theories regarding what "motivates" human behavior.

Descr Henry Murrys "psychological needs" theory.
Murry was a personality psychologist at Harvard in 1950s dev theory most of our actions are driven to satisfy 21 psychological needs
Disc Henry Murrys TAT or thematic apperception test to give an individual insight into needs which motivate him
Testees given a series of cards with ambiguous pictures where is is diff to discern what was going on and asked them to interpret or create a story for each and see if there is a recurring theme in each.

This would give insight into what needs motivate individuals behavior.
Descr TAT test to high and low achieving mothers.
Gave TAT test and then asked what was their priority re child rearing.

Higher Achieving mothers encouraged their children to become independant

Lower Acheiv Mothers???
Regarding theories about human motivation; descr Festinger's "cognitive motive theory" and cognitive dissonance?
He asserted that we are motivated to reduce cognitive disoonance. This is the uneasy feeling whenever we have 2 or more contradicting thoughts and we are motivated to reduce this dissonance the easiest way possible
Describe infidelity in marriage ex of Festinger's "cognitive motive theory" and cognitive dissonance.
A married woman who suspects that husband is unfaithful needing to rectify that conflict by chg thought to "husband is not faithful" or denial and "husband is faithful."
Discuss henry Maslow's Rhesus Monkey experiment regarding love/attachment.
1958 did studies with monkies. Took them away fr their mothers and created 2 types of artificial mother. One was wire with a bottle of milk attached to it. The other was similar except that instead of a bottle of milk it was surrounded by terry cloth. Question was to figure which mother baby would cling. Only during feed would monkey go to bottle mother and rest of time it would cling to terry cloth mother

THF conclude - humans have ned to physically bond with significant otheer and those who dont dont develope well emotionally