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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is def of learning?
A permanent change in behavior (which is actual behavior, thoughts, attitudes, etc…)
Who was Ivan Pavlov what year was he famous?
Russian physiologist won Nobel prize in 1904 for discovery of classical conditioning thru study of salivation in animals
What is US?
Unconditioned Stimulus is a natural occurring stimulus
I.e. food
What is UR?
Unconditioned Response is a natural response to a natural stimulus
I.e. food (US) causes salivation (UR)
What is CS?
Conditioned Stimulus is a neutral stimulus that is introduced w an unconditioned stimulus
I.e. bell sound (CS) introduced with food (US) → causes salivation (UR)
What is CR?
Conditioned Response is a learned response from a CS
I.e. bell sound (CS) → salivation (CR)
What is extinction?
After trained that CS → CR behavior, if the CS stimulus continues to be present without the presence of the US. The organism will cease to perform CR
What is spontaneous recovery?
After learned the CR → CS behavior and then extinguish that behavior, if we re-introduce the neutral stimulus with the food (US) then after 2 or 3 x the CS will resume
What is diff btwn "stimulus discrimination" vs "stimulus generalization"?
If an organism were taught to respond to a neutral stimulus (US) and then were to respond to a slightly different bell sound it would be stimulus generalizing (what it learned about the original bell sound to the similar sound.

If organism did not respond to similar bell sound then it would be dong stimulus discrimination.
What factors affect stimulus discrimination vs generalization response?
Intelligence of the organism and the importance of the US
Desrc John Watsons study on fear and phobias?

What year?
John Watson the behaviorist (wanted psychology to be a scientifically studied) demonstrated that phobias could be acquired via classical conditioning
I.e. Little Albert (20 month old) enjoyed playing with white lab rats. When Watson played a lound gong when the boys had the rat on his lap he would begin to cry. Then when rat placed on his lap (CS) he reacted by crying (CR)
What the John Watson/Little Albert study be permitted today?
This study would not be allowed today b/c of ethical issues of mistreating children
Descr Edward Thorndike and his work w "Operant Conditioning"?`
Edward Thorndike. Also called operant Learning and instrumental conditioning. With operant conditioning learning takes place because of consequences (favorable or disfavorable).
I.e. Cat in a maze box learned to get out to obtain food. The more often he was placed ion the box the quicker he learned to get out
What is diff btwn classical and operant conditioning?
Operant learning takes place b/c of consequences (favorable or not). Also classical conditioned response is involuntary where the operant response is voluntary
What are other names for operant conditioning?
Operant learning, instrumental learning, and instrumental conditioning
What are 3 types of instrumental learning?
1 Positive reinforcement

2 Neg reinforcement

3 Punishment
Descr "positive reinforcement" and give ex?
Any type of behavior good or bad. When a behavior is reinforced or rewarded the odds of engaging in that behavior again increase.
I.e. Boys takes trash out and parent gives him a dollar
Descr "Neg Reinforcement" and give ex?
When a behavior is performed in order to remove an aversive or unpleasant stimulus
I.e. alarm clock going off and hitting the snooze button. We learn to find that button in the dark so we don’t have to listen to it
Descr "punishment" and give ex?
Trying to correct a behavior or wanting to castigate for having engaged in unacceptable behavior
I.e. swatting a dog for peeing on carpet
What is diff btwn neg reinforcement and punishment?
reinforce behavior that removes or reduces unpleasant behavior is reinforced whereas punishment is intended to punish
What is diff btwn primary reinforcer and secondary reinforcer?
Anything that is inherently pleasant or rewarding
I.e. Food, praise, attention

I.e. money 9in itself it is just a piece of paper) but we’ve learned to associate good things we can get with it
What is diff btwn primary punisher and secondary punisher?
Anything that is inherently unpleasant
I.e. hit on the face, a shock

Anything we’ve learned to associate with a primary punisher
I.e. an “F” on a test (is just a letter) but it is associated with social disapproval or hurt feelings
What is "shaping"?
Rarely do humans learn complex behaviors on a single occasion. We learn complex behaviors thru process called shaping. Using reinforcement or the withholding of reinforcement and sometimes punishment to get someone to approximate the desired behavior
I.e. training animals at sea world are shaped by using fish treats for the target behavior
I.e. Childhood behavior modificatio
What affecr does corporal punishment as a form of shaping?
Intention to inflict pain for the purpose of correcting or controlling a child. This is correlated later with psychopathology like aggression, anxiety, and depression
What is diff btwn extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcers?
Extrinsic is reinforcement for behavior that is external to ourselves
I.e. Praise, money, trophies
Intrinsic reinforcement comes from within
I.e. Joy derived from doing something you like
What is observational learning and give ex?
When we see others engage in a behavior and imitate them
I.e. kids who smoke b/c they see others smoke
What is insight?
The ah ha I got it, experience
What is high order conditioning?
Doing above US to lean UR. But if you add another stimuli (neutral)
I.e. shining light while ringing bell → dog salivates , THEN light → dog salivates
Give example of shaping/
using reinforcement or withholding reinforcement or punishment to get someone to learn big behavior. Approval/Disapproval

I.e. trained porpoises at parks
Use classical conditioning b/c shamu assoc trainer w food and train them to do entire show
What is schedules of reinforcement?
Can put people or adults on schedules of reinforcement. Quickest way to learn or unlearn behavior is continuous reinforcement
What are 4 types of schedules reinforcement?
1 - Continuous reinforcement i.e. giving rat each time comes thru maze, or employee bonus when sell

2 - Fixed ratio
i.e. sales person has to sell certain amount or rat has t pass 3 x

3 – Variable Ratio-variable ratio of response

4 – Fixed interval-fixed amt of time
I.e. rat must press bar and then 30 secs later wll get treat