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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Major categories
Sexual=fondling, intercourse, exposure to sexual acts, involvment in pornography
Physical=beating, scalding, slapping, punching, kicking
Exposure to domestic violence
Neglect=failure to provide basic needs, lack of supervision
Psychological/emotional=failure to meet needs for emotional security, acceptance, autonomy
Difficulties in study of child maltreatment
Multiple victimizations and problems w/ categorization
What constitutes it/severity vary w/ devt stage
What constitutes vary by culture
cultural practices and/or racial bias determine what gets reported
Parental Risk factors for Physical abuse
Poverty (less likely to get good job)
Single parent home
Parental youth/lack of education (not prepared to raise child, insuffcient knowledge of child devt)
Large # of young children
Individual parent factors: anxious, angry, defensive, low impulse control, low frustration tolerence
Outcome of Physical abuse
Pervasive negative effects
-insecure attachment
-poor emotion regulation
-externalizing/internalizing px
-disrupted peer relationships
-intergenerational transmission of violence (30% may explain why but not an excuse)
Domestic Violence
does not have to recieve a physical blow to be negatively affected
does not have to visually witness
Can take many forms: physical aggression, verbal threats, sexual assault, psychological abuse
Sexual Abuse
Involvement of child in sexual activity that child
-does not comprehend
-unable to give informed consent
-not developmentally prepared for
-violates law/social norms of community
Wide range
Legal definition= perpetrator>13, and >5 year difference
History sexual abuse
Freud: high prevalence of sexual abuse among his patients
1953 Kinseys: 24% of women in US (but cared more about masturbation then sexual abuse)
B/w 1976-1993, child sexual abuse rose 300%
currently 11% of substantained child maltreatment cases in US
Characteristics of perpetrator and victim
Most perpetrators=adult men (pedophilia, substantial proportion are adol)
Most victims=girls (risk stronger if bond b/w mother and daughter not strong)
Older children/adolscents @ greatest risk; ratio of girls to boys increases w/ age.
Caucasian girls @ greater risk than African Am.
Consequences + affective
guilt, fear, anxiety, depression (helplessness), anger and hostility, feel responsible
Consequences + behavior
impaired ability to trust, aggression, pseudomaturity, inappropriate sexual beh, regression and loss of devt milestones
Consequences + cognitive
dissociative problems (feel as if not happening to you,or periods of checking out), disordered schemas-->all men are scary/ bad, negative view of sex, its the way to show love, bad feelings about self
Protective Factors
short lived, acute, appropriate reaction by nonoffending parent; close supportive relationship

Worst outcome: high frequency, chronic, close relationship w/ perpetrator, penetration
Psychological Abuse
Inherent in all forms of abuse
Ridiculing, rejecting, terrorizing, isolating, missocializing or corrupting, excessive control, denying emotional responsiveness
Most prevalent infancy/toddlerhood
(devt dimension)
No gender difference
Cognitive devt most impacted
the Batterer
Abusive men similar to victim (may have symptoms of PTSD, child history of abuse)
Difficulty w/ regulation, interpersonal problem solving

Insecure attachment (unable to sooth self-> unregulated emotion-> aggression)

Rejection sensitivity: the others will fail to fulfill their needs for acceptance and belonging

Violence=product of
-individual personality characteristics
-immediate social context
-community characteristics
-societal factors