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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ways to asses brain injury
Neurological examination: sensory/motor functions in tact
Neuropsychological testing: attention and memory

used to see effects, not to detect brain damage anymore
Structures of brain
lesions, tumors
CAT: x-ray of brain @ difference slices, gives gross overview of brian
MRI: like cat scan but more detailed; 3D image of brain
Functioning of brain
how brain processes info
PET:radioactive glucose (brain uses glucose for energy); active parts will light up
EEG: wires stuck to outside of skull, measures electrical activty in brain; general
ERP: brain response to specific stimulus
fMRI:see how brain changes during particular tasks, works on oxygen
Traumatic Brain Injury
Acquired injury to the brain caused by external force resulting in functional (walk, pay attention, etc) or pyschosoical(emotional,social ) problems
Closed head injury
More extensive damage then penetrating. tearing, twisting or shearing of fibers
Coup and Contra Coup (bruises in back and front)
Hippocampus: more vulnerable, lose memory
Closed head injury secondary effects
secondary effects:
edema=swelling of brain
bleeding (not enough oxygen)
ischema=little clots in brain
Close head injury examples
Concussion: memory loss, blurred vision, very tired, nausea, easily confused, changes in sleep patterns, increased sensitivity to light/sound
Shaken baby syndrome
Penetrating brain injury
Specific and focal deficits at the point of impact
Generally less severe but focal injuries may prevent child from developing new skills.
Prevalence: 3000 deaths, 29,000 hospitalizations, 400,000 ED visits
Boys 2x as likely
Low SES, minorities at greater risk
TBI most common in
Children who are overactive, risk-takers, underachieving, life stressors, poor family functioning, previous TBI

Difficult to determine premorbid functioning
depends on severity (deficits in numerous cognitive functions)
Increased family stress (economical and psychological)
Social isolation
Dev't course
Cerebral plasticity: children's brains more plastic, the younger the child, the more able they are to compensate for damaged area, however....

early vulnerability: more global too; if large section is knocked out, may have cascading effect and knock out other things too.
Chronic Illness
effects vary
asthma, cystic fibrosis, cerebral palsy, diabetes, sickel cell
Chronic Illness + Infancy/toddlerhood
Separation from caregiver, invasive procedures (may or may not effect devt)
No understanding of cause of illness
Response to pain gradually more localized, can look to others for comfort/support (shot, localize pain after 1st time)
Chronic Illness + mid childhood
Frequent absenses from school
Pain seen as a feeling, causes of illness better understood
Self regulation of pain
Better structuring, scaffolding
Chronic Illness + adol.
Noncompliance w/ treatment, denial
More abstract and complete undertanding of causes/coping w/ pain
greater parenting stress, but generally few differences. help from siblings
effusive at beginning, tapers off
Afican Am families value instrumental support vs. Caucasian value emotional