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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Substance use
occasional; experimentation w/out adverse effects
substance abuse
drug abuse
significant adverse consequences (work, school, home, dangerous situations)
criteria for dependence not met
substance dependence
tolerance: need more to get same effect
withdrawl:negative physical reactions to not having drug (or take another drug to avoid w/drawl symptoms)
great deal of time spent getting the substance
important activities given up
Problematic usage but does not meet full criteria
Adol.less likely to exhibit tolerence, withdrawl, negative physical effects; less likely to interact w/ law (hard to distinguish)
common symptoms in adolescents
mood problems
reduced anxiety level
risky sexual behavior
Family Context
Parental substance use and modeling of substance use beh.
(esp w/ close relationships)
Protective factors= authoritative parenting
Peer relations=strongest predictor in adol.
Peer influence
Niche picking: finding peers that like doing what you're doing (transactional), peers give you opportunity
Marijuana use
psychological adjustment is best if experimental (low w/ abstaining and frequent use)
Individual factors
Cognitive/academic underachievement: risk factor, fall into cycle
Cognitive Schemas
-enhancement:stimulate postive mood
-social:enhance social status
-coping:reduce negative emotions
-conformity:avoid social isolation
Early Starters
< 14
typically male,negative outcome (polysubstance use, relationship px, anitsocial), family hx of substance problems
Early adol. risk factors and protective factors
Risk factors: Antisocial peer models, low expectation of success, poor self-esteem, hopelessness
Protective factors:intolerance to deviance, postive orientation to school
Late Starter
young adulthood
peaks ages 18-25 during transition to work/college w/ freedom
heavier among college students than non-college peers and heaviest in sororities/frats
selection=members who join frats drink, so find others who do too
socialization=when in frat, likely to drink
Frat/heavy episodic drinking
1.niche picking: drink in HS, likely to find ppl who like to drink in college
2.socialization: likely to drink when member

Non members drank less across the board
When quit frat, decreases
Ethnicity alcohol/marijuana USE
Native Americans=highest rates of use
Caucausian= middle but still high
African Am/ Asian Am=lowest use

Asian am protective factor: not in low SES/occupation/etc
Native Am: more stress
age @ first use: 7-10 grade, steadily decreasing
SES unclear
Comorbid w/ polydrug abuse, CD, ADHD, anxiety, depression
CD @ greatest risk (breaking law, voilating rules)
Gender differences
Older children: males > females?
younger children: males=females

girls who abuse-early puberty, MDD, ED, history of sexual/ph abuse. alleviate depression, stress
boys-increase social status
genetic link: higher for alcohol/tabacco than illegal
risk for alcohol abuse 2-9% greater for children of alcoholics