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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ODD DSM Criteria
Pattern of negative, hostile, or defiant behavior w/ at least 4 behaviors (lose temper, deliberly annoys, blame others, angry, spiteful)
Causes impairment in academic/ social/family functioning
More serious than ODD
What fosters ODD
Individual child characteristics: temperamemt, cognitive factors (language processing problems, poor self regulation and executive functions, mood/anxiety disorders)
Parenting practices: can reinforce oppositional behavior
Coercive Exchange
Parent Commands--> repeat 3-7 times --> threatens 1-3 times -->agression (gives up)
When parent gives up, child wins; will test limit
Child getting attention when says no, will get nothing if agrees
Parent factors
Alpha commands: direct "clean your room"
Beta commands: vague. "do you think you might want to clean your room?"
Should give positive attention when child agrees, suggest to do together, give time out intead of more attention
CD DSM Criteria
Persisten and repetitive pattern of violating:basic rights of others. major age-inappropriate soceital norms/rules
Must have any 3 symptoms in four major categories.
Maybe mild,moderate,severe
Childhood or adol. onset
4 categories of CD
Agression to people/ animals(weapon,rape,bully)
Destruction of property(fire, vandalism)
Deceitfullness or theft (car, shoplifting)
Serious violations of rules (running away, curfew)
Onset Specifiers
Childhood (less then 10): "early starters"; poor prognosis; more boys. [unattached to family, alienated]
Adolescent (after 10): "late starters"; more girls- higher risk of psychopathology, drug use, etc later in life, but still more boys- seen more in ad.b/c more freedom, peer influence
Prevalence: 2-3%
Gender: boys>girls childhood onset. boys=girls ad. onset, boys show more overt behavior, girls more covert.
Lower SES, no ethinc diff when SES is controlled
Comorbid w/ ADHD, ODD (externalizing), LD, Depression
ADHD + CD = worst outcome
Psychopaths vs. CD
psychopaths: no empathy, superficial charm, absense of meaningful relationships, harm to others b/c they LIKE it.
CD: can have callous (lack of empathy)/unemotional traits or not have...risk factor
Developmental Pathway
Difficult temperament-> Hyperactive-> Oppositional Px->
Conduct Px-> Delinquency-> Antisociality
invariant sequence (always in this order)
protective factors: parenting, resilient child, high monitoring, high intelligence, early intervention,etc
3 Developmental Pathways
Authority: defiance, avoidance
Covert: shoplifting/lying, vandalism, fraud/burglary. Not directly confrontational
Overt: Bully/annoying, fights/gangs, violence. Directly confrontational.
involved in all 3=worst outcome
Etiology/ Biological factors
Genetics: good predictor= parent criminality. exposure to toxins
Temperament: difficult= predisposes child to impulsivity, irritability, overactivity
Individual Factors
Self regulation
Emotion regulation: exposed to family conflict overwhelmed, little managing help
Social perspective taking (is fundamental)
Hostile attribution styles
Family Factors
Parental conflict,divorce, family stress
Parental psychopathology (substance abuse, materal depression, parent antisocial personality disorder)
Harsh parenting/transmission of agression (modeling)
Coercive exchange (family uses negative reinforcement)
Transactional Processq
Social Factors
Peer rejection leads to further agressive behavior, gain negative reputation when behavior improves, deliquent peer groups
Consensus building=reciever assumes child has hostile intent in ambiguous situation--> kid believes actually is a bully so acts like it.
Cultural Factors
Media promotes/glamorizes antisocial behavior
Masculine socialization
Integrative model
Early childhood: poor parental discipline strategies
Mid childhood: peer rejection/ poor academic performance
Adol: antisocial peer group
Adult: disrupted marriage, chaotic employement
Parent Managment Training: give attention to prosocial behavior, positive reinforcement
Anger Managment: perspective taking, problem solving, emotion awareness, relaxation techniques, peer pressure
Multisystemic Treatment: combination therapy, impressive sucess.
CD Limitation
Adolescent onset-> greater change of psychopathology?
DSM doesnt care what causes it (etiology) or look at envionrmental factors.
Are all kids the same?
fire setting vs. cutting class= same disorder [Heterogenous]