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59 Cards in this Set

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) Natural Selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Hindsight Bias
– the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. Also known as the “I knew it all along phenomenon.”
) Psychological Theories (What do they do?)
– is an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
) Hypothesis
– a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
) Case Study
hope of revealing universal principals. an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth
Survey
a technique for ascertaining the self- reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
Correlation Coefficient
a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
An experiment
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors, to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.
Cause and effect
the study of why things happen when they do and the effect they have on surrounding factors.
Independent and Dependent Variables (their roles in experimentation)
the 2 factors which are principles in the research method of conducting an experiment
Action Potential
a neutral impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.p54
Threshold (Re:Neurons)
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons
Neural networks ( What strengthens them?)
neurons that are clustered into work groups. They get stronger by joining with other neurons. P 63 & 64
Hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion.
Endocrine System (What does it consists of?)
a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Endocrine System –(What does it produce?)
Hormones
Mutations – ( what are they a source of?)
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity. P 100
Identical Twins studies
the study of twins who develop from a single fertilized that splits in 2, creating 2 genetically identical organisms.
Temperament
a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
Culture
the enduring behavior, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Norms
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe “proper behavior”
Gender Roles
a set of expected behavior for males and females
Teratogen
agents, such as some chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
Habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated simulation.
*****Piaget ( convinced that the mind of a child does what?) -
a child's mind developsthrough a series of stagesin an upward march from newborn reflexes to the adult abstract reassuring power
Assimilation and Accomodation
Assimilation - interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas. Accomodation - adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new info.
Attachment
an emotional tie with another person
Insecure and secure attachment
Insecure - unwilling to explore new surroundings
Secure - ok to explore in a room full of toys
Authoritative Parenting
greatest sense of control over a child
Puberty
the period of sexual maturation, period when one becomes capable of reproducing
Sensation
process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
Perception
(hidden images) process of organizing, interpreting sensory info enabling us to recognize maningful objects and events
Absolute Threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
Transduction
conversion of one form of energy into another.In sensation, transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses
Parallel Processing
the process of several aspects of a problem simultaneously. The brains natural mode of info processing
Vision and visual capture
Vision- dominent sense
Visual capture - the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses eg. a movie in a theatre
Gestalt Psychology( the whole is more than the sum of its parts)
emphasize our tendency to to integrate pieces of info into meaningful wholes
Retinal Desparity
a binocular cue for perceiving depth
Visual Cliff Experiments
lab device for testing depth, perception, in infants and young animals
Fantasy-prone personality
a fantasy that seems real.(lucid)
day dreaming studies
people with few daydreams have more violent lives.
People with many have better lives
circadian rhythm
the biological clock. Regular body rhythms that occur every 24 hours
sleep stages
alpha waves,spindle ( burst of activity) transition stage,delta waves deep sleep
haalucinations
false sensory experiences
Human sleep cycle
repeats itself every 90 mins
Freud's basis of dreams
key to understanding our inner conflicts all dreams stem from erotic wishes
Freud's Manifest and latent content of dreams
incorporates traces of previous days experiences and preoccupations
activation-synthesis theory
psychological explanation of dreams
REM rebound
tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep depravation due to awakenings during previous REM sleep
John B Watson
a behaviorist only interested in behavior
Ivan Pavlov's Unconditioned and conditioned stimuli and Responses
learned, stimulus and response )CR,CS)
Operant Conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed bt a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
Skinner box
an experimental box where an animal learns to pecks to obtain treats
Reinforcer
anything that makes behavior continue. ( oh what a nice picture you drew)
Intermittent reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time
Positive reinforcement vs. punishment
Positive reinforcement - what therapists favor. Punishment brings on attention and so it continues.
Albert Bandura
observational learning - modeling
LEARNING BY OBSERVATION
learning by observing