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176 Cards in this Set

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Studying the brain - brain damage
damage to known regions of the brain allow us to corrolate brain regions to observed behavioral changes
phineas gage
Lesion studies
purposely destroy a part of the brain
observe behavioral changes
Studying the brain - electrical stimulation
use current to activate a region of the brain
known in humans to stimulate memories and can affect physical behavior
fMRI
functional magnetic resonance imaging
looks at oxygen levels in the brain to determine activity in certain regions
phrenology
brrrt
please try again
5 methods for studying the brain
classical and modern
phrenology
brain damage
lesion studies
electrical stimulation
fMRI
brain structure and personality
the brain is composed of specialized but interconnected regions
in constant communication
there’s no personality center:
personality comes from the interplay between regions
Eysenck and brain structure
Eysenck was the Extraversion/Neuroticism/Psychoticism guy
focused on the RAS (reticular activating system)
to explain intro/extra
excitability
excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms in the brain
RAS
associated with Eysenck’s extraversion and neuroticism model
RAS
reticular activating system
part of brain stem
connections to cerebral cortex and other parts
The Lemon Test
questionnaire given to assess introversion or extraversion
then subjects were given lemon juice
prediction that introverts would produce more saliva
due to being more amped to begin with?
Does Eysenck’s RAS theory have merit
yes
introverts react more strongly and more negatively to sensory stimulation
do note - RAS is not a faucet
some areas of the brain may be stimulated while others are not
Amygdala
associated with emotional processes
evolutionarily old
and thus the foundation of emotional processing is ancient
and is found amongst a variety of species
links perceptions and thoughts with emotional meaning
charles whitman
links perceptions and thoughts with emotional meaning
amygdala
brain part associated with excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms in the brain
RAS
differences in amygdala function and relevance to personality traits
amygdala is highly active in shy people shown pictures of strangers
for extraverts it’s more active for pictures of happy faces
Charles Whitman
Amygdala tumor
Frontal Lobes
Associated with higher functioning
speech, planning, interpreting
Somatic Marker Hypothesis
brain part affected by concussion
frontal lobes
effects of concussion
fogginess of thought
difficulty with memorization
difficulty with math
difficulty with executive functions (multi step plans)
thus we see the effects of damage to the frontal lobes
Phineas Gage
railroad company exec
explosion drove iron bar through his cheek, frontal lobes, and exited
exhibited impulsivity and emotional flattening
impulsivity associated with what brain part
frontal lobes - remember phineas gage
Somatic Marker Hypothesis
emotional feeling is required for effective decision making
supported by gage and others with frontal lobe damage
behavior associated with damage to frontal lobes
trouble regulating impulses and feelings
trouble understanding others’ emotions
trouble planning or making decisions
ADD and brain parts
underactive frontal lobes
the three big personality parts of the brain and what they do
RAS - arousal
Amygdala - perception
Frontal lobes - decision making
what do neurons do?
transmit sensations
connect sensations to memories, feelings
send behavioral instructions to muscles
describe neuron anatomy
cell body
axons
dendrites
function of dendrites
fingers at the end of axon which send messages via neurotransmitters
high levels of dopamine associated witht
addiction
psychosis
schizophrenia
why is dopamine associated with addiction?
it’s associated with the reward sensation
makes you high
love too!
low levels of dopamine assocaited with
Parkinsons
ADHD
(muscle control and impulsivity)
what does dopamine do?
associated with body movements
and the reward sensation
what does serotonin do?
affects behavioral and emotional inhibition
low levels of serotonin assocaited with
depression
anxiety
bipolar disorder
eating disorders
Describe how SSRIs work
thanks!
what do epinephrine and norepinephrine do?
they are both hormones and neurotransmitter
aka adrenaline and noradrenaline
fight or flight mechanisms
low levels of epi and norepi associated with
ADHD
depression
poor emotional stability
(lack of affect, or too much affect)
SNRI
like an SSRI, but for norep
describe selective breeding studies
used to study heridtary effect on personality
can study behavioral tendencies compared to animals who do not have the selected trait
describe how selective breeding studies sort the effects of genetics v. environment
genetically identical animals who be have differently show the effects of environment
evironmentally identical conditions show effects of genetics
how many genes do humans have?
what is the percentage that is identical for all humans?
30k
99%
monozygotic twins
same fertilized egg
dizygotic twins
different eggs
twin studies
strong corrolations in MZ v DZ twins in extravrsion and neuroticism
so MZs are more alike than DZs
adoption studies
ideally, study MZ twins in different environments
similaritieds to bio parents = genetics
sims to adoptive parents = environment
importantce of genetics and personality
very important -- but so is environment
everything is influenced (rather than caused) by genes, but this is also true of environment
unique experiences end up being more important for personality development than shared experiences -- numbers? (this is a random note, not sure of relevance)
genetic factors = 40%
non-shared environmental factors = 35%
shared environmental factors = 5%
describe more complex interactions between genetics and environment
the same environment can have different effects on people with different genetics
different genetics evoke different response from the environment
people select environments that complement their genes
environments can overwhelm the effects of genes (poor nutrition overwhelms the genes that make you tall and healthy)
Key concept of EvoPsych
people want to:
survive
reproduce
ensure that their own genes survive
and features of the mind evolved to solve the problems important to reproductive success
examples of evolution in psychology
good and bad
development of depth perception
taste preferences for fat
psychological modules
EvoPsych term -- we’ve developed multiple domain-specific modules
mating rituals are one
fear of lions are another (because they ruin reproductie chances)
evopsych and sex differences
biological difference result in different roles
men’s job is to impregnate
women’s job is to nurture
so m and w have different brains due to evolving to solve their specific problems
evopsych and jealousy
women are more concerned with emotional attachment due to threat of loss of resources
men are concerned with sexual infidelity due to threat to paternal probability
Parental investment theory
bio differneces cause women to invest more in parenting
women pay more and have higher replacement costs for reproduction
so women want men who have the potential of providing resources and protection
while men want women who have more reproductive potential
thus men are attracted to younger women, and vice versa
why are women attracted to older men and vice versa?
parental investment theory
so are psych sex differences bio based?
well, not really -- psych sex differences are smaller in societies in which men and women have different societal roles
evolutionary theory and the big 5
knowing where a person stands in the big 5 chart is important in a complex society
does she have my back?
will he help raise the kids?
evolution may explain why the big 5 are so prominent in our culture
and why the terms exist at all
evopsych objection:
Methodology
how do you test these theories?
psych the science is much younger than psych the phenomenon
alternative explanations (societal pressure...) are as well supported
evopsych objection:
Reproductive Instinct - does eveyrone want lots of babbbiees?
well, yes -- or, rather, our bodies and psyches do
we’ve evolved in such a way that the infrastructure causes sexual attraction, desire, pleasure, regardless of our intellectual wants
evopsych objection:
rape and child abuse are bad, aggression is bad
how can these traits have evolved?
just because it’s natural doesn’t mean it’s good
and it may be good and bad
aggression, for ex., has many positive uses as well
biological reductionism and psych
will bio take over psy?
no
there’s too much information about psy to pin on simple biology
and bio has no good origin for itself
Freud’s greatest contribution to PSY
The Talking Cure
The Talking Cure
Freud’s invention
allowing the client to talk
note: useful even if nothing’s being said
Freud’s precursor to psychoanalytic theory
Seduction theory
seduction theory
Freud’s initial psy theory
some childhood trauma causes a fixation
fixation causes anxiety and depression
now recognized as PTSD
The 4 key ideas of psychoanalytic theory
psychic determinism
internal structure
psychic conflict and compromise
mental energy
psychic determinism
nothing is an accident
thus: The Freudian Slip
everything has an identifiable cause
if you trip, there’s somehting you tripped over
same with the Slip
same with trouble in a relationship -- there’s a cause
thus, many mental processes are unconscious
psychoanalysis: Internal Structure
the iceberg analogy
we have the conscious, visible self
the preconscious just below the surface
and the unconscious, unseen without seeking
Id, Superego, Ego
Id
doesn’t say “no”
has no concept of time or space
Primary Process Thinking
operates on the pleasure principle
animalistic
Primary Process Thinking
the realm of the id
seeking of immediate gratification
without regard to consequences
the pleasure principle
the realm of the id
at root, people seek pleasure and avoid pain
of any sort - physical, mental, etc
Superego
the ultra-moral part of the mind
demands moral and righteous behavior
directly opposes the id’s selfishness
is rigid and repressive
Ego
the rational part of the mind
seeks to balance the id and superego
engages in secondary process thinking
operates on the Reality Principle
secondary process thinking
realm of the ego
rational, practical, prudent
delayed gratification
develops only as the ego developes - not present in babies
the reality principle
knowing that reality may require different action than the thing that would provide the most pleasure at the moment
opposite of the pleasure principle
psychic conflict and compromise
when the ISE conflict, anxiety occurs
the role of the ego then is to find the middle ground
compromise formation
compromise formation
the primary function of the ego
eases anxiety due to conflict between I and S
the ego’s primary function
Compromise formation
mental energy
aka libido
the mind needs energy to make it go
repressing bad stuff leaves less energy with which to live and be healthy
which is why you forget stuff when working on a big project, etc
libido
mental energy
life drive
opposite of thanatos
thanatos
death drive
opposite of libido
because there’s always an opposite (doctrine of opposites)
doctrine of opposites
everything requires an opposite
one cannot exist without the other
seen in Freud’s theories as libido and thanatos
the psychosexual stages
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
phys focus of oral stage
mouth
how infants get nutrition
and explore the environment
psych theme of oral stage
dependency
baby needs parent to do everything
fixation of oral stage
over-coddling =
overdependence, needy, entitled
under-coddling =
fierce independence
associated with oral habits - smoking, gum chewing
phys focus of anal stage
anus
psych focus of anal stage
self control and obedience
first time child hears “no”
ego develops at this stage
fixation of anal stage
overstrict parents = the anal retentive person
vice versa
age range of oral stage
0 to 18 months
age range of anal stage
18 months to 3 years
age range of phallic stage
3 years to 7 years
phys focus of phallic stage
understanding of one’s genitals
and what they mean culturally
grasping anatomical differences in sexes
psych focus of phallic stage
gender identity and sexuality
Identification
castration anxiety v. penis envy
Identification
psychological focus of the phallic stage
boy acts like father to impress the mother
vice versa
castration anxiety
boy recognizes that girls have no penis
think she must have done something wrong to lose it
this makes boys more moral?
penis envy
girl recognizes that she has no penis
feeling of inadequacy
no further fear of castration means that girls are less moral than boys
fixation of phallic stage
fixation = ultra moral character
puritanical
rejection = antipuritanical
age range of latency stage
7 to puberty
latency stage
a break between phallic and genital stages
learning what is needed fo adulthood
age range for the genital stage
puberty on
(major changes happen during adolescence and early adulthood)
phys focus of genital stage
genitals
psych theme of genital stage
maturity and productivity
contributing to society
fixation of genital stage
workaholic v. slacking
Free Association
say what comes to mind
completely off the cuff
ties into Freud’s concept of psychic determinism
thus allowing one to uncover a fixation
transferrence
placing the traits of someone you know onto a stranger
3 reasons why psychoanalytic therapy should work
conflict is less intense, allowing discussion to occur
therapist assumes a different attitude than a parent would
adult ego is more developed - allowing one to deal with issues without becoming fixated
internal psy structure and anxiety
anxiety arises from conflict between ISE
and so we try to deal with it using defense mechanisms
defense mechanisms
automatic function of the ego
distort reality or exclude feelings
with goal of eliminating the anxiety that arises from conflict within ISE
Denial
defense mechanism
refusal to acknowledge the source of anxiety
including denial of your own behaviors
(roger clemens may truly believe that he didn’t use)
Projection
defense mechanism
notings things in others which are actually aspects of yourself that you don’t like
”why are all you SOBs so hostile?”
Reaction Formation
defense mechanism
defending against a negative impulse by overreacting
spitzer? gay preachers
but not necessarily so nefarious:
see Sibling Rivalry
Sibling Rivalry
sibling HATES the new baby
attempts to harm the baby are met with disapproval and punishment
so the sibling learns to repress the hatred and instead engages in elaborate displacement of affection
now LOVES baby to help prevent the desire to harm it
Rationalization
defense mechanism
different from denial
person realizes actions but distorts motives
interpret behavior to make it appear more reasonable
Amy Fisher: It was the only way me and Joey could be together!
Intellectualization
defense mechanism
turning an anxiety-provoking issue into something unemotional
so the act or thought is recognized but denied the normal accompanying emotion
like surgeons and generals (and surgeons general?)
Petraeus: Collateral damage is an unfortunate but necessary part of armed conflict
Displacement
defense mechanism
makes the object of emotional reesponse move from an unsafe target to a safe one
Freud says there must be some similarity between targets
so smoking is an alternatie to sucking your thumb
yelling at your spouse is an alternative to yelling at your boss
Sublimation
defense mechanism
type of displacement
forbidden impulses are transformed into constructive behaviors
so, letterman channels cynicism into entertainment
boxers channel violent impulses into sport
psychologists channel voyeurism into helping people?
Freud claimed sublimation was essential to a properly functioning society
Repression
defense mechanism
banishing painful memories from conscious awareness
_plays a part in all other defense mechanisms_
requires a lot of psychic energy
Failure of repression
when psychic energy runs low
ego is unable to repress memories and feelings very well
and they bubble to the surface
and so people enter therapy
recovered memory v. false memory
due to repression, people bury traumatic memories
and free association can bring these memories to light
but mightn’t the memories be created by the probing of therapists?
ritual satanic abuse
Parapraxes
freudian slip
important: parapraxis may not be only the classic slip:
forgetting is a form of parapraxis as well
as well as other behavior (breaking that ugly lamp)
Crit Eval of Psychoanalysis:
Scientific?
No
no objective testing
based entirely on the case study method
Crit Eval of Psychoanalysis:
Systematic?
Yes -- every part of the theory is interrelated
crit eval of psychoanalysis:
Testable?
no
dependence on concept of psychic energy
which can’t be studied
also, not disprovable
crit eval of psychoanalysis:
Comprehensive?
yes - the most comprehensive of all theories
because it provides an explanation for all personality traits
and includes mechanisms for how they came to be
may be too comprehensive (just so)
crit eval of psychoanalysis:
applicability
absolutely
psychoanalysis _began_ as application
and people who seek psychotherapy seem to be better off than people who do not
another name for the neofreudians?
psychodynamicists
because they’re more focused on the dynamic processes of social situations
Psychodynamics
the focus (and name for) the Neo-freudian
focus on the dynamic process of social situations
3 differences between Freudian and Neo freudian
less emphasis on sex
(libido as a general motivator)
more emphasis on conscious thought
(focus on perception and comprehension of reality)
more emphasis on interpersonal rather than intrapersonal processes
Big players in NeoFreudianism
Adler
Jung
Horney
Erikson
Adler’s main contributions
first breakaway from Freud
Organ Inferiority (inferiority complex)
compensatory strivings
Birth Order
Organ inferiority
Adler
aka the inferiority complex
everyone is inferior as a child
how you deal with inferiority in childhood helps determine adult LIFESTYLE
compensatory strivings
Adler
everyone desires to be effectively social
SOCIAL INTEREST
Social Interest
Adler
we have an innate interest in relating positively with society and being a productive member
Define Birth Order
Adler
the environmental condition of birth order shapes one’s psychology
Birth order - Oldest
Intelligent
achievement oriented
conforming
attracted to power
seeks leadership roles
Birth order - Middle
Competitive
ambitious
motivated
achievement oreiented
middle child works harder to be noticed?
works as a mediator?
Birth order - Youngest
Sociable
dependent
spoiled
pampered
birth order - Only
early maturing
(spent childhood mainly around adults)
selfish
craves attention
Jung’s main contributions
Collective unconscious
Archetypes
Persona
Anima/Animus
Jung’s main beef with Freud
thought that Freud overemphasized the idea that behaviors are a repetition of the past
thought that people had a forward-looking motivation instead
Collective unconscious
Jung
cumulative experiences of our ancestors are shared by all humans
thus we’ve developed archetypes:
what does “father” mean?
what does a house represent?
Archetypes
Jung
result of collective unconscious
what does “father” mean, etc...
Persona
Jung
the mask we wear in our public lives
to some extent, everyone’s persona is false
so there is danger in identifying more with your persona than your real self
”i don’t feel like i’m myself when i’m with friends”
Anima/Animus
Anima is the idealized image of the female in the male mind
and presents itself as “the feminine side”
vice versa
Anima becomes a problem when the idealized woman is unattainable
Collective unconscious and generalizability
Jung says similarities in archetypes across cultures demonstrate universal unconscious motive to grow in self knowledge
Horney’s beef with Freud
believed culture was the major factor in pesonality, rather than biology
didn’t agree that women were inherently inferior (castration anxiety)
Womb Envy -- Men compensate for their inability to bear children
Erikson difference from Freud
said freud underestimated the importance of later psychological development
focused on conflicts and outcome at different stages of life, rather than “libidinal energy”
Psychosocial _and_ psychosexual
Had the 8 stages of development
Erikson’s 8 stages
trust v. mistrust
autonomy v. shame/guilt
initiative v. guilt
industry v. inferiority
identity v. identity confusion
intimacy v. isolation
generativity v. stagnation
integrity v. despair
Trust v. Mistrust
Erikson
first stage
child learns whether needs and wants will be met, ignored, overindulged
Autonomy v. Shame/Guilt
Erikson
second stage
child deals with conflict between adults’ pressure to obey and their own control over life
equates to Freud’s anal stage
Initiative v. Guilt
Erikson
third stage
child begins to anticpate and fantasize about life as an adult
if adults don’t respond well, these thoughts lead to guilt and baking away from maturity
child develps sense of morality at this stage
(thus similar to Freud’s phallic stage”
Industry v. Inferiority
Erikson
fourth stage
child develops skills and attitudes necessary to being a successful adult
identity v. identity confusion
Erikson
fifth stage
adolescent aims to figure out who she is and what is important to her
chooses values and goals consistent with above
intimacy v. isolation
Erikson
sixth stage
goal is to find an intimate life partner to share important experiences and developmental goals
generativity v. stagnation
Erikson
seventh stage
desire to rais and nurture children and do what needs to be done to ensure the progress of the next generation
integrity v. despair
Erikson
eighth stage
looking back over life experiences and feeling/not feeling regret
Object relations theory
experiences with people in the past affect relationships with people in the future
object refers to an emotionally important person
first object is your mother because she feeds you
you see the good traits in your mother
try to emulate them and seek them out in others
don’t forget Splitting
produced by Melanie Klein
Melanie Klein
originator of Object Relations Theory
Klein’s 4 main principles of Object Relations Theory
every relationsihp has elements of pleasure and pain
love and hate is a mixture
there’s a distinction between the parts of the love object and the whole person
the psyche of the baby is aware of these contradictory feelings and is disturbed by them (leading to guilt)
Splitting
children split their love objects into good and bad parts
children wish to destroy the bad part and worship the good part
knowing they’re parts of the same person leads to conflict
splitting allows them to cope
people with bpd have trouble recognizing a split and lump people entirely into good and bad camps
Goal for Object Relations Theory
get client to see that important people possess both good and bad traits, which make up the whole person
attachment theory
via transference, early relationships with parents form the template for future emotionally important relationships
John Bowlby
experience of love
future is shaped by how one is loved and comforted when scared or sick
desire for protection makes us develop ATTACHMENTS
Attachments
first experiences create attachements -- preferneces for templates for how a loved person “should be”
mental representations form for level of appropriate attachment
mental representations
templates of how a loved one should behave
different typs of interaction cause different represenations, cause different attachment styles
how do attachments work?
different types of interaction cause different mental representations of appropriate behavior for a loved one, which causes different styles of attachment
Mary Ainsworth
Strange Situation
Strange Situation
determines a baby’s attachment style
(describe what the test looks like)
leads to three types of attachment
Ainsworth’s 3 attachment styles
anxious-ambivalent
avoidant
secure
Anxious-ambivalent
Ainsworth
attachment style
inconsistent action of caregivers
child is vigilant of mothers presence
clings
feelings of hurt and insecurity
Avoidant
Ainsworth
attachment style
caregiver rebuffs attempts for contact
child is distressed (known through physiometric measures)
ignores when mother returns
hostile, defiant, distant
Secure
Ainsworth
attachment style
upset when mother leaves but happy when she returns
easily soothed when upset
actively explores environment
confident in mother’s support
Attachment theory and self-fulfilling prophecy
attachment patterns in childhood are reinforced
defiant behavior makes people less likely to cooperate with you, etc
how do therapists use attachment theory?
to teach patients about origins of their relationship styles
and point out more constructive ways to relate