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73 Cards in this Set

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In what ages do women usually have a higher rate of delievering low birth weight infants?
Under 20 and over 40.
What supplement is necessary to avoid spina bifida?
Folic acid.
What teratogen can cause slow growth, nervous system delays, mental retardation and physical facial deformities?
Alcohol.
This teratogen restricts blood supply and causes increased miscarriage as a result.
Nictotine.
What outcome does caffiene in large doses usually have on infants?
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.
What disease is the best example of a disease harming an infant?
Rubella.
What is the Rh factor?
An inherited characteristic and dominant genetic trait; chemical factor used to identify blood type.
What is perinatology?
Area of medical science concerned with detection and treatment of illness in developing individuals during the prenatal stage.
What is the purpose of an ultrasound?
Measures growth of the fetus and helps to see if structural development is progressing well.
What is chorionic villi sampling?
Biopsy is taken from the tissue surrounding the fetus.
What is embryoscopy?
The usage of a small viewing instrument that is placed into women's abdomen and structural abnormalities can be detected.
What is the Psychoprophylatic method of childbirth?
The natural childbirth option - based on Pavlovian concepts of classical conditioning; use of breathing and invovlement from the partner.
What is a doula?
Care for new mothers like midwives that have been present in many cultures;
What is rooming-in?
Baby is placed in the room with the mother and the mother takes care of the baby while they are in hospital.
In what set-up are children, family friends, etc. welcome during childbirth?
In birthing rooms - more comfortable and relaxed than traditional labor rooms; furnished like a bedroom in a house;
What does the invovlement of the family in childbirth promote?
Emotional bonding of the people who are there to the newborn;
What do alternative methods for conducting childbirth do?
Mimimize stress of birth for the baby;
What is infancy?
The period of the lifespan that extends between birth and three years of age.
What is the Psychoanalytic View of infancy?
Based on Freudian psychology; places importance on early experiences in determining characteristics later on in the life span; human personality is permanently formed in infancy.
What is the Developmental View of infancy?
This theory sees the infant as adaptable, can intiate behaviors, and make responses by interacting with the surrounding environment.
In which conceptual view of infancy are the parents seen as solely responsible for their child's developmental outcome?
The psychoanalytic view.
What is one of the earliest reflexes to appear?
The sucking reflex - parents need to decide between bottle and breast feeding for the child.
What is a major concern when introducing solid foods?
The supply of iron and protien must be sufficient so malnutrition does not occur.
What usually arises in toddlers around two years of age regarding sleeping?
Negativism; often related to the growing autonomy or fear of the dark/being left alone;
What is attachment?
The attraction to someone based on psychological bonding; strong affectional tie between an infant and his/her caregiver; essential for infants survival and well-being;
Why is attachment important?
It is important in establishing and infant's sense of trust in people and the environment.
What is social referencing?
Infants look at their parents' faces as means of obtaining informational cues; facial cues guide infants' decisions and how to react to certain situations;
What did Erikson see as one of the primary tasks during infancy?
The establishment of basic trust.
What is a significant opportunity for an infant to identify the caregiver as a primary source of physical and psychological nurturance?
Feeding time;
When is a sense of autonomy established for toddlers?
When they accomplish self-differentiation in new ways, such as setting personal boundaries - toilet training mastery.
What is responsible fathering?
Heightened motivatoin and commitment to parenthood and child-rearing, beliefs about parenting, relationship with child's mother, etc.
What are androgynous parenting roles?
Parenting roles that are shared, rather than based on gender;
What is a primary worry about dual-earner families in relation to their children?
Concerns are related to the experiences with daycare, etc harm attachment to parents;
What are two crucial factors in determining the effects of non-parental care on infant and child development?
Stability and quality of care.
When is the period of early childhood?
The period between the ages of three and six.
The expansion of what skill in early childhood allows a child to perform unlimited tasks?
Vocabulary and other language skills.
In the early childhood years, what do preschoolers work hard to establish?
Their own sense of autonomy.
In the family systems theory, what is structure known as?
Family patterns;
What are the primary means for teaching children structure?
Rules;
What are the two types of rules?
Nonnegotiable rules: can't be debated or changed; negotiable rules: subject to discussion;
What helps preschoolers begin to learn self-control of their actions?
Consequences of rules;
What is a child's sense of intiative?
The expression of confidence in young children and their desire to achieve mastery of relationships, objects and activities.
What is the alternative to establishing intiative?
A sense of guilt - psychosocial hazard faced by child;
What is socialization?
The processes by which children are taught to conform to social rules, values and develop attitudes of their cultural environment;
What are pro-social behaviors?
Behaviors that promote helpfulness and concern for others; show an awareness of other people's feelings and appropriate ways of reacting to those feelings;
To execute pro-social behaviors effectively, what skill does a child need to know how to use?
Empathy.
What is aggression?
Any hostile action that causes fear and leads to forceful contact with another; part of normal growth and development;
What is gender identity?
The knowledge that humans are either male or female; learn gender roles through parents;
What is the preoperational mode of thinking?
Thinking becomes more noticable in children, they have an active memory and information-processing skills; child is often intuitive in nature;
What is egocentrism?
when the child thinks he/she is the center of the universe;
What skill facilitates cognitive development?
Language and interaction with the environment;
What object promotes appropriate physical, psychosocial and mental skills?
Toys and play equipment.
What can help with getting a child to bed?
Sleep hygiene routines.
When is middle childhood?
Between the ages of 6 and the onset of puberty.
What is the central task of middle childhood?
Development of a sense of industry.
What becomes of the parenting role during middle childhood?
The parenting role becomes more psychosocial than physical-helping role.
What is co-regulation?
The predominant parenting style in middle childhood, where there is greater sharing of social power and general supervision; reassurance and positive reinforcement are both important;
With school-aged children, what must parents be sensitive to?
The child's developmental needs - nurturance;
Although children will spend longer away from home, what do parents need to ensure occurs?
Unstructured personal times;
What principle goes along with development of a sense of industry?
The development of work-ethic.
What are middle childrens' greater influences?
Their peer group;
What do new mental skills in middle childhood reflect refinemtents in?
Cognition - reading, writing and calculation;
What are parents more concerened about children's exposure to?
Violence;
What are some of the normal behavior problems of middle childhood?
Noncompliance, anti-social behaviors,
What are activities of daily living?
Tasks such as seeing, hearing, talking, climbling, or taking care of oneself that children with special needs often face difficulties with;
What is an IEP?
An individualized education program for those with special needs - relates to federal legislation;
What is adolescence?
The stage of the life span that represents the transition period from childhood and into adulthood.
What occurs during early and late adolescence?
Early - physical changes; late - psychosocial changes;
What is key in parenting adolescents?
Communication;
What parenting styles tends to be effective with adolescents?
Democratic styles;
What are adolescents trying to do during this stage of life?
Gain individuation from their parents;
What is one of the challenges faced by parents during adolescence?
The adaptation in providing structure and nurturance;
What interaction style emerges with adult children?
Equalitarian interaction style - supports efforts of adult children to emancipate completely into adult lifestyles.