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55 Cards in this Set

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What is socialization?
socialization is the process by which a person learns to conform to the currently accepted norms and values of a society
What is the unidirectional model of parenting?
The unidirectional model of parenting is the model that expresses that parents are only influences to their children; the children are active learners.
What is the family systems theory?
the idea that the family functions like other systems in nature, such as the solar system.
What does it mean to say that parenthood is a developmental role?
Parenting behavior and interactions adapt to developmental changes in children.
What is the environmentalist position?
The position that John Locke took in relation to the child, saying that a child is a blank slate at birth and he/she is only affected by his environment.
What is maturationism?
Rousseau believed that children best develop outside the influence of parents and teachers; the natural, innate development is the best way forward.
Who is Galinsky?
He developed six stages of parental evolution, as parents change in response to developmental changes in their children.
What is reciprocal interaction?
The idea that parents change in reponse to their interactions with their children.
What are the six stages of parental evolution?
Galinksy;
image-making stage, nurturing stage, authortative stage, interpretative stage, independant stage and departure stage
What is the difference between assertive and supportive care?
Assertive care means that a parent recognizes and responds to behavioral cues of a child; supportive care is offering to help, but the children don't necessarily have to accept it.
What are the primary parenting functions?
To provide structure and nurturance for the child.
Name some of the factors that combine together to influence parenting style.
cultural influences; disciplinary approach; parents of origin; how parents think they should behave; children's influences on parents; primary functions of parents: nuture and structure; developmental time of parent and child and their adaptatation; family ecological factors (environment).
What is social competance?
the overall group of attributes that are believed to allow a person to meet his or her full potential.
What does it mean to have a family of choice?
A family of choice is a network of significant others and friends who provide emotional and social support.
Name some features of contemporary families.
marriage (people marrying later and less often); births (2.1); divorce (lost much of its social stigma); remarriage (men more likely to remarry); family income (has risen overall because of dual earners); poverty and homelessnes (both have been feminized).
What is another term to describe stepfamilies?
Blended famliies.
What are the norms of families?
diversity and structure
What is hierarchial parenting?
an authoriatarian form of parenting in which collective values are emphasized; personal relaitonsihp, respect and responsibility are all valued.
What is the Confucian training doctrine?
emphasizes blending nurturance with parental invovlement and physical closeness with strict control over kids.
What is contextual communication?
refers to where and under what circumstances the verbal and nonverbal communications occur.
What is the zone of proximal development?
Vygotsky's idea that taskes that are too difficult for a child to complete can be done with guidence from adults who are more skilled.
What is private speech?
Adults talk to themselves outloud when they interact with a child; young children use this as self-guidence as it is internalized later on.
What is scaffolding?
Any parental behavior that supports children's efforts are more advanced skill development until children become competent.
What are the meanings of the parenthood role according to JE Veevers?
morality, responsibility, sex, marriage, naturalness, normality and mental health
What did EE LeMasters think of parenthood?
He believed that the move to parenthood was a crisis in a couple's marriage.
Who confirmed LeMasters' ideas?
Everett Dyer
What are assisted reproductive technologies?
artificial insemination: sperm injected into woman's cervix; in vitro fertilization: fertility drugs stimulate over production of eggs, and then sperm/egg are implanted into uterus; ovum transfer: egg provided by female donor; surrogate motherhood
What is the famous case relating to surrogate motherhood?
Baby M
What are the different types of adoptions?
Closed: both parties unknown to eachother, and no communication.
Semi-Open: both have access to information, but no contact.
Open: possible to determine identities of both sides; reunions often occur.
What are the two different types of rules?
explicit - known, stated and outlined clearly to all family members; implicit - unspoken and inferred from nonverbal behavior.
What is reciprocal interaction?
one person's actions is a stimulus for another person's reaction, and that person's reaction is a stimulus for another reaction, etc.
What is an open family?
They have flexible boundaries, and easy flow of interaction between people outside family circle.
What is a closed family?
Boundaries maintain status quo and change is resisted.
What is entropy?
Disorder in a family system from the lack of input outside the family as a means to resolving the problem.
What are negative actions?
Movements toward greater disruption.
What are positive actions?
Movement of a system away from disorder by accepting outside energy.
What is equifinality?
when families share common goals, but reaches them in different ways; this differentiates family systems theory from unidirectional model.
What term related to the tendancy of a family to respond to variables that cause growth and development?
Morphogensis
What is morphostatis?
The desire of family systems to remain stable over teim by attempting to maintain status quo.
Who is Laszloffy?
He uses a metaphor to illustrate the concepts of systematic model as necessary.
What is Laszloffy's metaphor?
A round layer cake.
Who proposed an ecological theory of parenting?
Bronfenbrenner
What is the mesosystem?
It invovles relations between the microsystem and the other systems that affect the person.
What is the microsystem?
The environments provided by family, school, neighborhood.
What is the exosystem?
Groups in which the indvidiual does not have an active role, but s/he is influenced by it; government agencies, community programs,etc.
What is the macrosystem?
Describes how a person is affected by the larger culture - behavioral norms, values, etc.
What is the chronosystem?
It encompasses the entire network of systems.
Who developed a theory regarding psychosocial development and parenting?
Erikson.
What is a psychosocial crisis?
Describes the challenge to attain a healthy attitude; change is enhanced by experiences confronting each crisis.
What are psychosocial senses?
Attitudes or general feelings that result from how adequately a person masters crisis.
How did Vygotsky view children?
As apprentices.
Who developed the zone of proximal development?
Vygotsky.
Who is EE LeMasters?
He belived that birth of the first childe causes a crisis event in a marriage relationship.
Who is Evertt Dyer?
He also thought that childbirth causes a marital crisis.
What does the first birth really bring about for parents?
A transition.