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162 Cards in this Set

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What are the 7 Dimensions of abnormality?
1. Suffering (distress or pain)

2. Maladaptiveness (interfere w/ functioning)

3. Irrationality & Incomprehensibility (thoughts and behav rational/logical?)

4. Unpredictability & Loss of Control (person predictable, consistent, & in control of actions?)

5. Vividness & Unconventionality
(does behav stand out?-rare and socially undersirable)

6. Observer Discomfort
(are others uncomfortable)

7. Violation of Moral & Ideal Standards
(tends to change w/ time, history, culture)
hazards of self-diagnosis
as you study, you see characteristics of disorders in yourself
Historically Perceived Causes & Tx

Animistic
(mystical) beleif that eveything and everyone has a soul
~cause: supernatural (demon pocession)
~Tx: *trephining (holes in skulls), exorcism, ostracism
Historically Perceived Causes & Tx

Organic
(physical)
1. Greeks
~cause: roaming uterus (hysteria)
~Tx: unbalance of 4 humors (blood, phlem, yellow &black bile

2. Animalsim
~cause: wild behavior, physical attributes that look similar to animals
~Tx: try to restore reason, fear, brutal behavior (beatings)
Historically Perceived Causes & Tx

Psychogenic
(psychological)
1. Mesmerism:
~obstruction of magnetic fluid
~hypnosis (placebo effect)
2. Hypnotism
~Charcot:
~able to distinguish hysteria and other disorders
~people w/ hysteria able to move hand under hypnosis

~Breuer:
~had people talk about probs under hypnosis

~Freud:
~noticed people got better w/out hypnosis: TALK THERAPY
What are the 4 biological etiologies?
1. Germs
~first time physical connected to psychological

2. Genetics

3. Biochemistry

4. neuroanatomy
What is general paresis?
result of syphillis
~weakness
~eccentricity
~delusions
~paralysis & death
What did Von Krafft-Ebing do in 1897?
determined that syphillis causing paresis

took 9 people w/ general parasis and infected them w/ syphillis
~none of them redeveloped sores

ethical? not so much
Freud and 3 levels of consciousness
1. conscious: presently attending
2. preconscious: can retrieve
3. unconscious: most important, mass of memories, experiences, and instincts
3 processes of personality
1. id: immediate gratification, pleasure principle

2. ego: reality principle, tries to gratify ID in accordance w/ reality

3. superego: moral priniciple,
Psychoanalytic

3 Processes
1. conflict from unequal distribution of energy

2. conflict generates anxiety

3. emergence of defense mechanisms
Types of defense mechanisms
1. repression
2. regression
3. denial
4. displacement
5. projection
6. reaction formation (made anti-gay church but he was gay)
what are the psychosexual stages?
1. oral
2. anal
3. phalic
4. latency
5. genital
Behavioral Theories
1. focus on behav (not cognitions)
2. focus on external (how environment shapes behav
3. experiment for cause
4. change possible:
~change environment=change behavior
Behavioral Tx
1. flooding therapy (over-exposure)
2. Aversive conditioning (noxious stim)
3. Systematic Desensitization: counter conditioning=reciprocal inhibition
schedulesof reinforcement
1. continuous
2. intermittent
~interval (based on time)
~fixed
~variable
~ratio (#of correct responses)
~fixed
~variable
Treatment involving operant conditioning
1. shaping: baby steps
2. Premack Principle (if i study for 1 hour i can sleep for 5)
3. token economy
4. response cost (take away s/t desirable)
5. time-out
6. contigency contracting (kind of like the study contract)
What is cognitive therapy?
1. cognitions mediate btwn enviroment and behavior
2. thinking is primary concern
3. change belief=change feeling=change behav
4. AWARENESS then CHANGE
10 cognitive distortions

see h/o in notes
1. all-or-nothing
2. overgeneraliztion
3. mental filter
4. disqualifying the postive
5. jumping to conclusions
~mind reading
~fortune teller error
6. magnificaiton (catastrophizing) or minimization
7. emotional reasoning
8. should statement
9. labeling and mislabeling
10. personalization
all-or-nothing
you see things in black-and-white categoreis

mayor or im nothing
overgeneraliztion
single neg event as never-ending pattern of defeat

just my luck, s/o always hits my car
mental filter
you pick out a single neg detail and dwell on it exlusively

17/100 wrong and focused on those and not the 83/100 you got right
disqualifying the positive
you reject postive experiences by insisting they "dont count" for reason

compliments= just being nice
jumping to conclustions
make a neg interpretation even though there are not definite facts to support

~mind reading: didnt say "hi" must be angry

~fortune teller error: anticipate things will turn out badly, and convinced that your prediction is already established fact
magnification (catastrophizing) or minimization
binocular
you exaggerate the importance of things or (embarrass self so never go back there) you inappropriately shrink things until they appear tiny (your own desirable qualities)
emotional reasoning
i feel it, therefore it must be true

i think im inadequate so i am
should statements
SHOULD
labeling and mislabeling
extreme overgeneralization, neg label

he's an idiot, i'm a loser
personalization
see yourself as the cause of some neg external event which in fact you were not responsible for

child gets bad grades, i must be a bad mom
5 research methods
1. clinical study (case study)
2. expermental method
3. correlation method
4. experiments of "nature": 9/11, war
5. laboratory models
What are the 5 axises on the Multiaxial Classification System?
Axis I: clinical disorders
~mood, anxiety, substance-related
Axis II: MR and Personality Disorder

Axis III: General Medical Condition
~ulcers, incr BP
~may be relevent to metnal dis

Axis IV: Psychosocial & Environmental Probs
~stressors: poverty, divorce, arrested

Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning
~clinician's judgement of the individual's overal level of funct.
~1-100
What is the difference between reliability and validity?
reliability: constistency
Validity: degree a test measures what is purports to measure
Objective vs Projective Testing
objective: standardized
Projective: ex)Rorschach
Name 3 Nonverbal Tests
1. observations
2. Psychophysiological (EEG)
3. neuropsych
~Bender-Gestalt
~draw geometric shapes
~Halstead-Reitan
Panic Disorder
RECURRENT and UNEXPECTED PAs

women 2xs more common
4-7xs more likely in 1st degree relatives

comorbid: substance abuse & depression
Treatments of Panic Disorder
1. biological:
~antidepressants (TCAs (imiprimine) SSRIs)
~BZs (Xanax, Valium)
~probs w/ addiction
2. Cognitive
~catastrophizing, so use rational thinking
Agoraphobia
CANNOT Dx by itself
~Panic w/out Agor
~Panic w/ agor
~agor w/o a history of PD

ANXIETY ABOUT BEING IN A PLACE IN WHICH ESCAPE MGTH BE DIFFICULT OR EMBARRASSING OR CAN'T GET HELP IF THEY HAVE A PA
~crowds, bridges, outside home, traveling
Treatments for Agoraphobia
1. Behavioral
~generalization=avoidance, so
~in-vivo exposure
~present CS w/o CR
2. biological
~TCAs (imiprimine)

3. combo
Specific Phobias
involve s/t more specific (not generalized like agoraphobia)

1. persistant fear
2. exposure=immediate PA
3. recogn. as excessive
4. avoided or endured w/ distress
5. interferes w/ normal routine
Types of Specific Phobias
1. animal
2. natural environment (water, heights)
3. blood-injection-injury
4. situational (tunnels, bridges)
5. other type (cued by not mentioned)
Treatments for Specific Phobia
1. behavioral
~systematic Desensitization
~flooding
~modeling
~applied tension (B-I-I)
2. biological
~Benzoidiazepines
~antidepressants
~MAOIs
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
person tends to be nervous in general, no specific object
~excessive worry about # of events
~diff. to control worry
~Impairment
Social Phobia
persistent fear of social or performance situations in which a person is exposed to unfamiliar people and possible scrutiny
Treatments for GAD
1. cognitive & CBT
~ID thoughts and challenge
2. biologically
~BuSpar
inhibits worry (GABA)
Theoretical explainations for Social Phobia
1. Psychoanlytic
~fear is at unconcious level
~Hans feared horse so he really just wanted to kill his father...riiiiight
2. Behavioral
~CC
~avoidance=extinction cant happen
~OC
~avoidance = neg. reinforcement
Criteria for OCD
1. cause marked distress
2. are time consuming
3. interfere w/ daily life

often comorbid with depression
Treatments for OCD
1. Psychoanalytic
~talk about it. free analysis, uncover unconscious
2. CBT
~Exposure and Response Prevention
~compulsion= neg. rein. so beh incr
3. biological
~TCA (Anafranil)
~SSRI (prozac, paxil, zoloft)
PTSD: 3 categories of Defining Sx
1. Reexperiencing (at least one)
~unwanted memories, recurrent dreams, feeling trauma will happen again, reminders produce distress
2. Avoidance and Numbing (3 or more)
~avoids reminders, repression, loss of interest, distant from others, no plan for future
3. Hyperarousal (2 or more)
~hypervigilance, irritability, startle rxn

SURVIOR GUILT
Tx for PTSD
1. Prolonged Exposure Therapy
~repeatedly relives trauma
2. Cognitve Processing Therapy
~challenge maladaptive thoughts
What are dissociative disorders?
1. if consciousness affected (cant remember imp personal events)
2. if ID affected
3. if behavior affected
Dissociative Identity Disorder
1. presences of 2 or more distinct IDs
2. at least 2 of IDs take CONTROL of person's behavior
3. inability to recall important personal info (too extensive to be forgotten)
Ernest Hilgard
"hidden observer"

active mode: conscious plans and desires

Passive Receptive Mode: conscious registers and stores info in memory w/o being aware that info has been processed; as if hidden observer were watching and recording events in people's lives w/o their awareness
Tx of DID
1. integrate the personalities
~ID core personality
~recovering processing the trauma that resulted in defense of creating alters

2. support most adaptive
Dissociative Fugue
1. WANDER FAR AWAY!!
2. confusion about personal ID or assumption of a new ID
~not Ron s/t and Joe other times, always Ron

3. stress related
4. distress or impairment
Dissociative Amnesia
NOT DUE TO BRAIN TRAUMA-PSYCH!

1. inability to recall important personal info
2. NOT DUE to other disorders or brain trauma
types of amnesia
retrograde: cant remember BEFORE event
~diss. amnesia
anterograde: cant remember AFTER event
~physical trauma
Somatoform Disorder
1. signif physical Sx which tere is NO apparent organic cause
2. Sx are NOT consciously produced or under physical control
3. psychological factors likely to be involved
Conversion Disorder
Somatoform: used to be hysteria

HAVE TO HAVE SUBTYPE!!!
1. loss of Fxing in voluntary motor/sensory control
2. psychological NOT physical
~trauma (psycho) converted into physical Sx

glove amnesia (lose sensation in hand)
Subtypes of Conversion Disorder
1. with MOTOR Sx or deficit
~coordination prob
2. with SENSORY Sx or deficit
~no feeling
3. with SEIZURES or CONVULSIONS
4. MIXED
la belle indifference
conversion disorder:

unconcerned about loss of fxing
Somatization Disorder
1. Hx of many physical complaints prior to age 30 over a period of several years, w/ Tx being sought or signif impairment BUT
NO PHYSICAL CAUSE
Symptom criteria for Somatization Disorder
1. PAIN (min of 4 diff sites)
2. GASTROINTESTINAL Sx other than pain (min 2 sites)
3. SEXUAL or REPRODUCTIVE sx (min 1 site)
4. PSEUDOneurological sx (1 site)
pain disorder
1. hx of complaints of pain in 1 or more parts of body, for which medical attention has been sought BUT NO PHYSICAL CAUSE
2. onset or worsening appear to be psychologically linked
Tx for pain disorder
1. psychodynamic
~get at unconscious prob
2. cognitive
~reinterpret cognitions & avoid catastrophizing
3. communicative
~instead of voicing fear, we express it physically
~teach how to express feelins
4. Percept Blocking
~work on trauma, let mind process it
Psychosomatic Disorder
real physical Sx intiated or exaggered by psych distress
Malingering
V-CODE

deliberate FAKING, Sx under voluntary control
Facticious Disorder
Munchausen's Syndrome

faking to get medical attention
Facticious Disorder by PROXY
get attention by creating illness in children
Unipolar Depression
includes:
Major Depressive Disorder, Dysthymic Disorder, SAD
Major Depression
1. min. 2 weeks and represents change from previous functioning
2.need 5 Sx's (including loss of interest in activities or depressed mood)
Prevalence of Major Depression
(total # of cases)

women, adolescents
genetic vulnerablity
TCAs for Major Depression
TCA: NE & 5-HT; block receptors

good at Tx vegatative Sx
can OD-bad if suicidal

imipramineL:Tonfranil
clominpramine: Anafranil
MAOIs for Major Depression
inhibit enzyme that breaks down NTs
lethal: tiromere

used when anxiety present

phenelzine: Nardil
Second Generation Antidepress. for Major Depression
SSRI: trying to diminish side-effects and incr main effect
~cant OD
~fluoxetine: Prozac
~paroxetine: paxil
~sertraline: Zoloft
BUPROPRIAN: wellbutrin, Zyban
cognitive triad for Major Depression
1. a characteristic way of thinking frequently assoc. w/ depression
2. depressed person has a neg. or pessimistic view of :
~SELF (low self-esteem), WORLD (sucks), FUTURE (hopeless)
Paralysis of Will
paralyzed to do anything: learned helplessness
Suicidal Ideation
better off dead (diff from suicidal wishes)
Biopolar Disorder
1. mood or emotionsl Sx:
~persistantly elevated, expansive, or irritable lasting at LEAST 1 WEEK)
2. thoughts racing
3. distractibility
4. more talkative than usual
5. psychomotor agitation incr
6. excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have high potential for painful consquences
~bank rupt, unprotected sex w/ random people
7. decr need for sleep
Prevalence for Biopolar Disorder
~1-2% in liftetime
~equal in males and females
~not many episodes after 20
~genetics: concordance MZ: 78%
Tx of biopolar
Lithium Carbonate
~antidepressants
~fatal if taken in high doses

might NOT WANT mania to go away
Schizophrenia
SET of DISORDERS involving disturbances in thought, behavior, and mood

diff w/ language and emotion
characteristics Sx's of SZ
2 or more for at SIGNIF of MONTH

~delusions
~hallucinations
~disorganized speech
~continous signs for at LEAST 6 MONTHS
common themes of delusions
1. grandeur
2. control-s/o outside, Martian
3. persecution- out to get them, FBI
4. reference-think pple laugh at them
5. somatic-organ is rotting
expression deficits in SZ
1. Loosening of Assoc-tangentiality
2. Clang Assoc
3. Neologisms
4. word salad-jibberish
5. echolalia-repeat what other ppl say
6. perseveration-repeating phrase
perceptual difficulties in Sz
hallucinations:
~auditory
~visual
~tactile
~olfactory
Prevalence of Major Depression
(total # of cases)

women, adolescents
genetic vulnerablity
TCAs for Major Depression
TCA: NE & 5-HT; block receptors

good at Tx vegatative Sx
can OD-bad if suicidal

imipramineL:Tonfranil
clominpramine: Anafranil
MAOIs for Major Depression
inhibit enzyme that breaks down NTs
lethal: tiromere

used when anxiety present

phenelzine: Nardil
Second Generation Antidepress. for Major Depression
SSRI: trying to diminish side-effects and incr main effect
~cant OD
~fluoxetine: Prozac
~paroxetine: paxil
~sertraline: Zoloft
BUPROPRIAN: wellbutrin, Zyban
cognitive triad for Major Depression
1. a characteristic way of thinking frequently assoc. w/ depression
2. depressed person has a neg. or pessimistic view of :
~SELF (low self-esteem), WORLD (sucks), FUTURE (hopeless)
Paralysis of Will
paralyzed to do anything: learned helplessness
Suicidal Ideation
better off dead (diff from suicidal wishes)
Biopolar Disorder
1. mood or emotionsl Sx:
~persistantly elevated, expansive, or irritable lasting at LEAST 1 WEEK)
2. thoughts racing
3. distractibility
4. more talkative than usual
5. psychomotor agitation incr
6. excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have high potential for painful consquences
~bank rupt, unprotected sex w/ random people
7. decr need for sleep
Prevalence for Biopolar Disorder
~1-2% in liftetime
~equal in males and females
~not many episodes after 20
~genetics: concordance MZ: 78%
Tx of biopolar
Lithium Carbonate
~antidepressants
~fatal if taken in high doses

might NOT WANT mania to go away
Schizophrenia
SET of DISORDERS involving disturbances in thought, behavior, and mood

diff w/ language and emotion
characteristics Sx's of SZ
2 or more for at SIGNIF of MONTH

~delusions
~hallucinations
~disorganized speech
~continous signs for at LEAST 6 MONTHS
common themes of delusions
1. grandeur
2. control-s/o outside, Martian
3. persecution- out to get them, FBI
4. reference-think pple laugh at them
5. somatic-organ is rotting
expression deficits in SZ
1. Loosening of Assoc-tangentiality
2. Clang Assoc
3. Neologisms
4. word salad-jibberish
5. echolalia-repeat what other ppl say
6. perseveration-repeating phrase
perceptual difficulties in Sz
hallucinations:
~auditory
~visual
~tactile
~olfactory
affective disturbances of SZ
~apathetic: flat, bland, unresponsive
~emotionally inapprioprate
Social Relationships of SZ
1. social withdrawal
~no connections, ppl dont understand
2. loss of boundary btwn self & others
3. imparied interpersonal Fxing
Prevalence
1. prev 1% across cultures
2. incidence: .017%
3. females > age 25, males adolescents
4. high stress enviorment
~18% in college
5. lower class
~incidence 3xs
~preval: 8xs greater
Subtypes of Sz
1. Paranoid Sz
2. Disorganized Sz
3. Cataonic Sz
paranoid Sz
delusions of grandeur or persecution or frequent auditory hallucinations
Disorganized Sz
1. disorganized speech
2. disorganized behaviors
~disregard grooming
3. flat and inappropriate affect
Catatonic Sz
1. primarily disturbances in psychomotor Fxing
~echopaxio: mimic movements
Type I vs Type II Sz
Type I:
~positive Sxs
~thougth to arise from excessive DA
~RESPOND to Neuroleptics
Type II:
~Neg Sxs: deficit compared to normal Fx
~may be assoc w/ brain structures
~does NOT RESPOND to Neuroleptics
Etiology of Sz
1. Genetics, probably
2. Neurochemistry
~excess DA in Subcortical regions
~incr leads to pos Sx
~low DA in prefrontal are
~decr lead to neg Sx
3. Brain Structure
1. smaller frontal lobes
2. enlarged ventricles
3. decr blood flow-cortex
4. damge to fetal brain
3. Sociological
1. social causation theory: stresses
2. social selection
Tx for Sz
1. drugs
1. chlorpromazine: Thorazine
2. haloperidol: haldol
3. cloapine: Clozaril
~2nd generation
~WON'T develop TARDIVE DYSKINESIA

2. Milieu Therapy
~all staff involved
3. Group Residence
5 layers of erotic life
1. sexual identity
~perceive self as M or F
2. sexual orientation
~what sex youre attracted to
3. sexual interest
~things you find sexually arousing
4. sex role
~sacntioning by society
5. sexual performance
~ability o perform under specific conditons
Gender Identity Disorder
1. in wrong body
2. childhood: desire to be opp sex
3. adolescents: attempt to pass as opp sex
4. transgendered is chronic
5. diff from transvestite
Mullerian Ducts
female precursor
Wolffian ducts
male precursor
Seligman's Theory
Development of Sexual Organs, Sexual Identity, and Sexual Orientation thought to be influenced by similar yet separate processes
Androgen Insensitive Syndrome (AIS)
1. chromosally XY
2. body produces androgen BUT cells are INSENSITIVE
3. external biology almost like that of a normal female
4. body has 2 interenal testes instead of ovaries and uterus, shortened vagina
True Hermaphrodites
subjected to both M and F hormones during pregnancy
Pseudohermaphrodies/Interesexed
development is intermediate btwn M and F; dont know whether to classify as M or F
Features of a Paraphilia
1. recurrent, intese sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors
2. all require of at least 6 months
3. all involve IMPAIRMENT, BUT S&M
fetishim
sexually dysfunctional w/out object
Sexual Sadism
involving acts in which the psychological or physical SUFFERING OF VICTIM IS SEXUALLY EXCITING
Sexual Masochism
involving the act of being humiliated beaten, bound, or otherwise MADE TO SUFFER
autoerotic asphyxiation
aroused when cant breathe (masochism)
Exhibitionism
flashers: shock/suprise
Voyeursim
peeping tom
Frotteurism
involves touching & rubbing against a nonconsenting person
Pedaphilia
involving sexual activity w/ pre-puberty children

person is at least 16, at least 5 yrs older

men w/ boys doesnt mean they're gay
Tx of Paraphilias
1. behavioral
~pairing NS w/ US (sexual stimulus), NS become US

Tx: aversion therapy
Cluster A
odd and eccentric; withdrawn behaviors

1. paranoid PD
2. Schizoid PD
3. Schizotypal PD
Paranoid PD
1. pervasive distrust and suspiciousness
2. other's motives seen as malevolent

suspects w/o basis
unjustified doubts of loyalty
reluctance to confide
hypersensitive
bears grudges
restricted emotions
Schizoid PD
1. detached from social relationships
~loners
2. emotionally restrict/cold
KEY: do NOT have eccentric speech
dont desire relationships
friends=1st degree relatives
little interest in sex
extreme loners
emotional coldness
Schizotypal PD
1. great discomfort in social relationshiops
2. very ODD/ECCENTRIC behav and thinking

ideas of reference
odd beliefs/magical thinking
odd thinking and speech
bahaviors/appearance is odd
suspicious or paranoid
inappropriate or consticted affect
Cluster B
dramatic, emotional and erratic disorder

1. antisocial PD
2. borderline PD
3. histrionic PD
4. Narcissistic PD
Antisocial PD
1. disregard for and violation of, other's rights
2. they're at least 18 and evidence of a Conduct Disorder onset before 15

criminal activity
deceitfulness
impulsivity
irritabilty
irresponsbility
lack of remorse
Borderline PD
2% of pop
1. pervasive pattern UNSTABLE realtionships, self-image, and affect
2. marked IMPULSIVITY

extreme intense & unstable relations
identity disturbance
chronic emptiness
impulsivity that is self-damaging
recurrent suicidal behav
frantic efforts to avoid abandonment
emotional instability
Histrionic PD
1. excessive emotionality & attention seeking

uncomfortable when nt the center of attention
interacions often sexually provative
exaggerated expression of emoiton
suggestible-easiy influenced
considers relationships more intimate than they are
narcissistic PD
1. pattern of grandiosity need for admiration
2. lack of empathy

envious of others
exploitive
sense of entitlement
fragile self-esteem
Cluster C
1. disorders often appear ANXIOUS or FEARFUL

1.Avoidant PD
2. Dependent PD
3. OCPD
Avoidant PD
1. social inhibition
2. feelings of inadequacy
3. hypersensitivity to neg evaluation

avoids interpersonal occupational activ.
wont become involved unless certain they'll be liked
interpersonally feels inadequate & inferior
reluctant to take personal risks
Dependent PD
1. pattern of submissve & clinging beh
2. fears of separation

allows others to take resonsibility for thier lives
cont defer adn subordinate own needs
feels empty and helpless when alone
excess need to be taken care of
won't make own decisions
OCPD
1. preoccupation w/ orderliness, perfectionism, and control

preoccupied w/ details
devotion to work-excludes leisure
overconsientious about matters of morality
hoarders
miserly spending
rigid and stubborn
meticulous
Anorexia Nervosa
1. refusal to maintain normal body weight~15% below standard
2. intense fear of gaing weight
3. distorted body image
4. absence of at least 3 consecutive menstrual cycles
Types of Anorexia
1. Restricting Type
2. Binge-eating/Purging Type
~BELOW BODY WEIGHT
Consequences of Anorexia
1. low BP
2. low body temp
3. bone growth retarded
4. anemia
5. early onset of osteoperosis
6. cardiac arethmia/failure
7. death rates: 10%
8. 1% of pop; 90% females
Bulimia Nervosa
1. recurrent episodes of binge eating
2. inappropriate compensating in order to prevent weight gain
3. binging at LEAST 2xs/week/3months
4. self-evaluation unduly influenced by body shape/weight
Types of Bulimia
1. Purging Type
2. NonPurging Type
~fasting, exercise
consequences of Bulimia
1. loss of electrolites and body fluid
2. enamel loss
3. incr cavaties
4. salitory glands enlarge
5. callouses on back of hand
6. laxative dependent
7. tears in esophagus
8. stomach ruptures
9. cardiac arythmia

prev: 1-3%; 90% female
Pica
1. persistant eating of nonnutritive substances
2. eating has to be inappropriate to developmental level
3. eating is not a culturally sanctioned practice
4. if during another metnal disorder

s/t linked to vitamin deficiencies
Pica: infants and young children
paste, paint, plaster, string, hair, cloth
Pica: older children
leaves, pebbles, insects, sand, animal poo
Pica: adolescents and adults
clay and soil
childhood disorders
1. ADHD
2. Conduct Disorder
3. Tic Disorder
4. Tourette's Disorder
ADHD
1. inattention
2. hyperactivity
3. impulsivity

2:1-9:1 M:F

Sx seen prior to age 7
see in 2 or more settings
Tx for ADHD
drugs
1. mild stimulant-amphetamine
1. Ritalin & Dexedrine
2. side-effects
~lethargic, stunt growth, etc
Conduct Disorder
4 primary characteristics
1. aggression to pple/animals
2. destruction of property
3. deceitfulness or theft
4. serious violation of rules
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
milder version of Conduct Disorder
Tic Disorder
single or multiple motor OR vocal tics
~NOT BOTH
onset before 18, avg. age 7
Types of Tic
1. vocal: word or sound (grunt)
2. motor: usually involve head, twitch
3. complex: squatting, skipping
Coprolalia
vocal tic: obscenities
prev: 5-30/10,000 children
Copropraxia
motor tic: obscene gestures
Tx for Tic Disorder
1. antipsychotic
~Haldol (Sz) blocks DA
2. behavioral techniques
~lengthen time behav is suppressed
Tourette's Disorder
BOTH multiple motor & one or more vocal tics present AT SOME TIME

NOT necessarily SAME TIME