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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What did Plato first define a person as?
A two-legged animal without feathers
Intuition (intuitive control)
control by a concept or set of contingencies the person or organism does not define or describe

e.g. good art, jazz
What did Hernstein and Loveland do with pigeons in the Skinner box?
Reinforced pecking responses with pictures of people (S^D) and extinguished pecking when pictures didn't contain people (S^Delta)
DId the pigeons exhibit stimulus generalization to novel pictures?
When do we know that conceptual stimulus control is occurring?
1. The observer responds in a similar way to all stimuli in a stimulus class (including novel stimuli)

2. But the observer does not respond to stimuli outside that class (including novel stimuli)
What is the difference between concept training and discrimination training?
Concept training deals with stimulus classes.

Discrimination training deals with individual stimuli.
What is an example of stimulus class and an individual stimulus?
Stimulus class: being able to recognize your best friend in all different clothes and from different angles and distances.

Individual stimulus: only being able to recognize your friend from one specific view
Stimulus class (concept)
-A set of stimuli,
-all of which have some common physical property
Stimulus generalization
-The behavioral contingencies
-in the presence of one stimulus
-affect the frequency of the response
-in the presence of another stimulus
Concept training
-Reinforcing or punishing a response
-in the presence of one stimulus class
-and extinguishing it
-or allowing it to recover
-in the prsence of another stimulus class
Conceptual stimulus control
-Responding occurs more often in the presence of one stimulus class
-and less often in the presence of another stimulus class
-because of concept training
What was Dr. Watanabe's experiment with pigeons in Japan?
Two groups:
1. S^D: Impressionistic paintings by Monet
S^Delta: Cubist paintings by Picasso

2. S^D: Picasso
S^Delta: Monet

Key pecks were either reinforced or extinguished, depending on the S^D
What were the results?
Generalization tests with novel paintings resulted in the birds still discriminating correctly.

The pigeons correctly picked other non-Monet impressionistic paintings (and vice versa).

Also correctly picked black-and-white renditions and sharpened or blurred paintings
What is generalization the opposite of?
When is it difficult to establish a good discrimination?
When the two stimuli are physically similar.
Stimulus dimensions
the physical properties of a stimulus

(i.e. the ways stimuli can differ from each other)
Fading procedure
-At first the S^Delta and the S^D differ along at least two stimulus dimensions.
-The difference between the S^Delta and the S^D along all but ONE dimension is reduced until there is no difference along the reduced dimensions.
-Then the S^Delta and the S^D differ along only one dimension.
What was the golfball example?
There was a good golf ball and a bad golf ball. In order to make them vary on TWO dimensions, they colored the bad one green. Then they gradually faded the green --> white, leaving roundness (e.g.) the only difference in dimensions. Roundness would therefore be the only basis for stimulus discrimination.
What would red triangles be?
Stimulus class
What would intensity of light be?
Stimulus dimension
What would red be?
An abstraction
What would force of a lever press be?
Response dimension
How did Mae teach Jimmy to recognize his name?
Using fading.
She put his name and Susan's name on a white card and a black card (respectively). Then she reinforced his correct responses with a raisin, fading the card to black gradually until it was black like Susan's. The only differing stimulus dimension was the lettering.
Errorless Discrimination procedure
-The use of a fading procedure
-to establish a discrimination,
-with no errors during the training
What is Shaping's area of application and purpose?
Response differentiation.

To bring about a response not made by the organism.
What is Reinforcer Reduction's area of application and purpose?
Type and amount of reinforcer.

To maintain responses already made or to establish a particular pattern of responses.
What is Fading's area of application and purpose?
Stimulus discrimination.

To bring the response under the control of stimuli that didn't exert control initially.
What variables does reinforcer reduction affect?
-Schedule of reinforcement
-Amount of reinforcer
-Type of reinforcer
What schedule of reinforcement was used for the pigeon and the yellow-green light?
Intermittent reinforcement (only reinforced an occasional response in the presence of the light)
What were the results of the natural stimulus generalization with the yellow-green light?
The pigeon made fewer responses as the colors were more dissimilar to the original yellow-green light, decreasing in responses as the natural color frequency moved further away from yellow-green.

Gradient effect
Stimulus-generalization gradient
-A gradient of responding showing
-a decrease of stimulus control
-as the test stimulus
-becomes less similar to the training stimulus
What is the difference between the amount of generalization and the amount of discrimination?
They are opposites
Matching to Sample
-Selecting a comparison stimulus
-corresponding to a sample stimulus
Symbolic matching to sample
-Matching to sample in which
-the relation between
-the sample and comparison stimuli
-are arbitrary
Who was Al and what couldn't he do?
Al was in a car accident when he was 19 that led to brain damage. He couldn't do certain kinds of symbolic matching to sample, like identify therapists he saw daily.
How did Dawn help Al?
She verbalized an individual therapist's name (sample stimulus) and had Al point to the matching photo (comparison stimulus)
How did Al's case show symmetry?
Since Al was trained to pick out a photo when he heard a name, he could also say the name when he saw the photo.

This happened because he would repeat Dawn under his breath when she said the names.
How did Al's case show transitivity?
Al could also match written names to the photos, even though he'd never had symbolic matching to sample involving both photos and written names.

Training: (Spoken name)--> (Written name)
Training: (Spoken name)--> (photo)
Results: (Photo)--> (Written name)
How did Al's case show reflexivity?
Al could match written words with identical written words, and photos with identical photos.

A = A
Stimulus equivalence class
-All stimuli in an arbitrary set resulting from symbolic, matching to sample, stimulus-equivalence training are:
-symmetrical and,
-transitive with each other

Need not have common physical properties.
Emergent Relations
-Those stimulus-control relations that emerge without being explicitly trained

(e.g. Al's ability to match a photo to a written name)