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183 Cards in this Set

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JEAN-JACQUES ROSSEAU
- believed infants, children, adolescents, and young adults demonstrated unique behavior during distinct developmental phases
PLATO & ARISTOTLE
- discovered distinct periods of development
- based on reasoning ability and self-determination
FREUD
- first to account for stages in childhood and to suggest and come up with predictable age periods for these distinct changes
ID
- a reservoir of unconscious psychological energies and the motive to avoid pain and obtain pleasure
- Contains competing life instincts
- fueled by psychic energy (libido) and the death or aggressive instincts.
EGO
- acts as a referee between the needs of instinct and the demads of society
- bows to the realities of life (sublimation)
SUPEREGO
- represents morality, the rules of parents and society, the power of authority
- includes conscience
LATENCY STAGE
- 6 years to puberty
- Sexual desire diminishes and attention turns to development of talents and skills
- Play with same sex peers and avoid opposite sex peers.
GENITAL STAGE
- Puberty through adulthood
- Concerns are with maturation of adult sexual interests
- Sexual desires remerge
- If successfully resolved phalic stage, sexual interests turn to heterosexual relationships
- Also see maturity in a broad sense
- loving and working
CRITICISMS OF FREUD'S WORK
- over generalize
lack of empirical verification
closedness of ideas
- overemphasis of sexuality
- question effectiveness of psychoanalytic treatment
- poor view of female sexuality
G. STANLEY HALL
- father of psychology
- first systematic recognition/modeling in modern times of puberty to young adulthood as a distinct stage in the life cycle.
- negative view on adolescence (very stressful time)
- beginning of adult view on sex
- used a biological method
- advocate of Freud's psychoanalysis but not openly after 1911
HALL RECAPITULATION THEORY
- every human being passes through all the stages of the species' evolution in his personal development
- ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny
- "Darwin of the mind"
MARGARET MEAD
- Sociocultural influenced development more than genetics
- Samoa girl- adolescence wasn't as difficult fot the Samoan girl as the U.S. girl
- early childhood breaks or makes experiences and behaviors in adolescence.
FURTHER CHANGES IN THE 20th CENTURY
- declines in adolescent apprenticeships
- increase in skill and educationa requirements
- urbanization and separation of work and hoome life- adolescents in the suburbs develop less quickly then children in the city
- creation of age-segregated systems for education and socialization
- Restrictions on drinking, voting, and working due to age
STEREOTYPE
- a broad category that reflects our impressions and beliefs about people.
- Refers to an image of what the typical member of a particular group is like
ADOLESCENT GENERALIZATION GAP
- Adelson's concept of widespread generalizations about adolescents based on information about a limited, highly visible group of adolescents.
- MTV
BENEFITS OF ACTIVITIES
- participation in activities and organizations bring high levels of intrinsic motivation and concentration
- development of sophisticated cognitive and social responses
- must show initiative to succeed
- learn about body
CHARACTERISTICS OF BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES
- adult participation and guidance (must facilitate initiative)
- organizational activities take place in real-world environments
- support a variety of activities over time
- voluntary activities
CONTEXTS
- the settings in which development occurs; influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors
- context of environment determines how we adapt to it
- experience is different in different areas
SOCIAL POLICY
- a national government's course of action designed to influence the welfare of its citizens
GENERATIONAL INEQUITY
- the unfair treatment of younger members of an aging society in which older adults pile up advantages by receiving inequitably large allocations of resources
NATIONAL POLICY FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES GUIDELINES
- an adequate income through employment and benefits
- Flexible work schedules
- a system of support
- service system with federal guidelines (social security will expand stages so late adulthood will begin later)
- research foundation developing effective programs
- care for children's health
- appropriate legal protection for children supporting intact families
- "economic safety net"
BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES
- physical changes within an individuals body
COGNITIVE PROCESSES
- changes in thinking and intelligence
SOCIOCULTURAL PROCESSES
- changes in relationships, emotions, personality, and social contexts
DEVELOPMENTAL TRANSITIONS
- childhood to adolescence
- adolescence to adulthood
EXAMPLES OF DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES
- growth spurts, hormonal changes, and sexual maturation
- changes in abstract, idealistic, and logical thinking
- demands for intellectual challenge
- shifts toward egocentrism and cravings for independence
- quests for affilative peers
- cravings for increased intimacy with friends and romantic partners
- demonstrations of self repsonsibility both personally and financially
NATURE
- organisms biological inheritance
NURTURE
- environmental experience
CONTINUITY
- gradual cumulative change
- ex: growth of seedling into a gigantic tree
DISCONTINUITY
- distinct stages
- ex: caterpilar builds a chrysalis around itself, only to emerge into a butterfly
EARLY-LATER EXPERIENCE ISSUE
- which is the key determinant of development
- most people agree that early experience is most critical because brain cells are developing
- Later experience is also important because adults can make life altering changes
HOW ADOLESCENTS UNDERSTAND THEMSELVES
- abstraction and idealism
- differentiation; fluctuating
- Contradictions- smoke eve though they know its unhealthy
- Real vs. ideal (T vs. F)
- Social Comparison, Self- consciousness
- Self protection
- Unconscious self
- Self integration
POSSIBLE SELF
- ideal or imagined self
- what they might become, what they want to become, and what they are afraid of becoming
SELF ESTEEM
- Global dimension
- self worth and self image
- fluctuates across the lifespan
SELF CONCEPT
- domain specific
- physical domains is the most popular
- feel good about academic performance but bad about your athletic performance
POSITIVE SELF ESTEEM
- gives directives or commands
- uses voice appropriate for situation
- expresses opinions
- sits with others during social activities
- works cooperatively
- faces others when speaking or being spoken too
- maintains eye contact
- initiates friendly contact
- maintains comfortable personsal space
- has little hesitation in speech
NEGATIVE SELF ESTEEM
- puts others down
- uese dramatic gestures
- engages in inappropriate touching or avoids physical contact
- gives excuses for failures
- glances around to monitor others
- brags excessively
- verbally puts self dow; self deprecation
- speaks too loudly, abruptly, or in a dogmatic tone
- does not express views or opinions
- assumes a submissive stance
HOW TO IMPROVE SELF-ESTEEM
- Determine what is causing the low self esteem and what actual domains are important to the individual
- Build support and gain social approval
- Achieve goals
- Cope with problems
ERIKSON
- stages continue on longer than Freud's stages do
- personality and role experimentations
- identiy is a self portrait composed of many pieces
IDENTITY VS. IDENTITY CONFUSION
- 10 to 20 years
- individuals are faced with deciding who they are
- what they are all about
- and where the are going in life
PSYCHOSOCIAL MORATORIUM
- Erikson
- gap between childhood security and adult autonomy that adolescents experience as part of their identity exploration
COMPOSITION OF IDENTITY
- career and work path a person wants to follow
- whether a person is politically conservative, liberal, or moderate
- spiritual beliefs
- relationship status
- motivation/intellect
- sexual orientation
JAMES MARCIA
- wasn't focused on the stage itself
- Adolescent was characterized by crisis
CRISIS
- a period of identity development during which the adolescent is choosing among meaningful alternatives
COMMITMENT
- the part of identity development in which adolescents show a personal investment in what they are going to do
IDENTITY DIFFUSION
- the state adolescents are in when they have not yet experienced a crisis or made any commitments
- no crisis or commitment
IDENTITY FORECLOSURE
- state adolescents are in when they have made a commitment but have not experienced a crisis
- Commitment but no crisis
IDENTITY MORATORIUM
- state of adolescents who are in the midst of a crisis but who have not made a clear commitment to identity
- crisis but no commitment
IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT
- an adolescent who has undergone a crisis and made a commitment
- Crisis and commitment
JEAN PIAGET
- worked with genetic epistemology- the study of the ways we solve problems as a function of our developmental level
- our ways of solving problems change as we mature
- the progression to the next cognitive stage was based on the successful completion of the previous one
SCHEMA
- a concept or framework that exists in the individual's mind to organize and interpret info
ASSIMILATION
- the incorporation of new info into existing knowledge
ACCOMODATION
- an adjustment to new info, causing the schema to change
EQUILIBRATION
- when adolescents experience cotnitive conflict, they resolve conflict to reach a balance
CONCRETE OPERATIONS
- age 7-11
- logical reasoning replaces intuitive thought as long as reasoning can be applied to concrete examples
- conservation task
- adolescence is the struggle from concrete operations to formal operations
FORMAL OPERATIONS
- emerging at age 11-15
- Abstract- solve algebraic equations
- Idealistic- think about ideal characteristics of the world, others, and themselves
- Logical- hypothetical deductive reasoning
VYGOTSKY
- contextual perspective
- zone of proximal development
- scaffolding
- cognitive apprenticeship
- tutoring
- cooperative learning
- reciprocal teaching
ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT
- individual skill range being developed to its full potential
- gap between what a child is able to do and what they are not quite ready to acomplish themselves
INFORMATION PROCESSING VIEW
- decision making
- critical thinking
- creative thinking
- metacognition and self regulatory learning
CRITICAL THINKING
- thinking reflexively and productively and evaluating the evidence
- evaluate evidence unbiasly
CREATIVITY
- the ability to think in novel and unusual ways and come up with unique solutions to problems
- take an old solution to a new problem
CONVERGENT THINKING
- a pattern of thinking in which individuals produce one correct answer
- Characteristic of the items on conventional intelligence tests
DIVERGENT THINKING
- a pattern of thinking in which individuals produce many answers to the same question
- more characteristic of convergent thinking
METACOGNITION
- cognition about cognition or knowing about knowing
SELF-REGULATORY LEARNING
- Consists of self generation and self monitoring of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors to reach a goal
- learning to be aware of emotions
THE PSYCHOMETRIC INTELLIGENCE VIEW
- intelligence is a set of skills that are looked at in a society as important and has been mastered
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
- form of social intelligence
- involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this info to guide one's thinking and action
EMPATHY
- reacting to another's feelings with an emotional response that is similar to the other's response
- Self-awareness- vision, values, beliefs
- self management- self motivation and self regulation
- awareness of others- understanding
- relationship management- knowledge and sksills
ADOLESCENT EGOCENTRISM
- social cognition
- heightened self-consciousness of adolescents
- reflected in their belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, and in their sense of personal uniqueness
PERSONAL FABLE
- social cognition
- the part of adolescent egocentrism involving an adolescent's sense of uniqueness
PERSPECTIVE TAKING
- the ability to assume another person's perspective and understand his or her thoughts and feelings
MORAL DEVELOPMENT
- learn moral behavior by becoming less ignorant
- involves thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of righ and wrong
- Kohlberg- different types of reasoning
PRECONVENTIONAL REASONING
- heteronomous morality
- individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange
- guided by external beliefs
CONVENTIONAL REASONING
- mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, interpersonal conformity
- social systems morality
- between guided by external beliefs and internal beliefs
- very black and white
POSTCONVENTIONAL REASONING
- social contract or utility and individual rights
- universal ethical principles
- thhe abstract ability to understand morality as a social context
- would steel drugs because they are guided by internal beliefs that they need them to save their grandma's life
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY
- Moral competence- the ability to produce moral behaviors
- Moral Performance- performing those behaviors in specific situations
PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR
- Altruism- unselfish interest in helping another person
- forgiveness- occurs when an injured person releases the injurer from possible retaliation
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
- Ego ideal- the component of the superego that involves standards approved by the parents (emphasizes early experience more than late experience)
- Conscience- the component of the superego that involves behaviors disapproved by the parents
TYPES OF DISCIPLINE
- love withdrawal- a parent removes attention from the adolescent
- Power assertion- parent attempts to control the adolescent's recourses
- Induction- a discipline technique in which a perent uses reason and explanation of the consequences of the adolesncent's actions
PARENTS OF MORAL CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
- use inductive discipline
- involve children in family decisions
- stimulate adolescents to question moral reasonign
VALUES
- beliefs and attitudes about the way things should be
FAMILY SYSTEM
- The marital relationship, parenting, and child behavior and development all play a role on each other
PARENTS AS MANAGERS
- managers of the children's opportunities
- monitors of social relationships
- social initiators and arrangers
- later adolescence forces parents to become less like managers but still there for guidance
PARENTING ROLES
- mothers role- more involved than fathers
- fathers role- new role as active, nurturant caregiver
- Coparenting- easier when mother and father cooperate
INDIVIDUALITY
- consists of
1) Self-assertion- ability to have and communicate a point of view
2) Separateness, expressing how one is different from others
CONNECTEDNESS
- consists of
1) Mutuality- sensitivity to and respect for others' views
2) Permeabilty- openess to others views
RECIPROCAL SOCIALIZATION
- the process by which children and adolescents socialize parents, just as parents socialize them
- the role parents play
SYNCHRONY
- the carefully coordinated interaction between parent and child or adolescent in which they are, often unknowingly, attuned to each other's behavior
- the parent and adolescent are aware of each others emotions
AUTHORITATIVE
- accepting, responsive
- demanding, controlling
- when a child gets a bad grade they are disappointed but help the child through communicating
AUTHORITARIAN
- Rejecting, unresponsive
- Demanding, controlling
- When the child gets a bad grade they are disappointed and punishes child rather than communicating
PARENT-ADOLESCENT CONFLICT
- caused by the generation gap
- 20% of families have unhealthy conflict originating prior to adolescence
AUTONOMY AND ATTACHMENT
- the ability to attain autonomy and gain control over one's bhavior in adolescence is acquired through appropriate adult reactions to the adolescent's desire for control
- adolescent is seeking autonomy and the way a parent reacts to this is important
AUTONOMY ISSUES
- the problem with adolescent autonomy is emotional autonomy
- Boys seek autonomy earlier because they have more independece since they have an increase of testosterone cauing aggression
- Culture- U.S. adolescents seek autonomy at earlier age
- College transition
- Runaways- occur gradually when child is unhappy at home. Children are more susceptible to drug abuse
SIBLING RELATIONSHIPS
- strong socializing influence
- sibling conflict is lower in adolescence than in childhood
FAMILIES IN U.S.
- divorce, out of welock births, and rates of teenage child bearing have steadily increased the number of children living with one parent
- number of working parents has increased
- Programs provide too little support after a great deal of damage has occurred
EFFECT OF DIVORCED FAMILIES ON ADOLESCENTS
- poorer adjustment in academics, externalizing and internalizing problems
- most do not have any problems
- parents shouldn't stay together if unhappy because these can be more harmful to the well-bing of children
- after divorce parenting becomes more authoritative bu there is a harmonious relationship
- women lose more in divorces than males
- personality and temperament, developmental status, gender, custody, and relocation increase adolescent's risk vulnerability
STEP FAMILIES
- boundary ambiguity- the uncertainty about who is in or out of the family and who is performing or responsible for certain tasks in the family system.
WORKING PARENTS
- working mothers have no negative effects on adolescents
- Latchkey adolescents are unsupervised for 2-4 hours after school because of parents working. They normally have negative experiences
- Job relocation is stressful\
- Unemployment has negative effects on adolescent development
GAY AND LESBIAN PARENTS
- no differences in adjustment of children
- most children have heterosexual orientation
GOOD SOCIAL POLICY FOR FAMILIES
- Engage parents and adolescents in activities both enjoy
- Professionals who work with adolescents increase time spent with the adolescent's family
- Employers extend work/family policy to free parents to spend more time with teenagers
- Community institutions promote more after-school programs
PEERS
- children or adolescents who are about the same age or maturity level
- doesn't have to be exactly the same age
FAMILY PEER LINKAGES
- Parents and peers are connected by common activities like athletic boosters
- parents can model or coach their adolescents in ways of relating to peers
- Secure attachment to parents relates to positive peer relations
PEER CONFORMITY
- occurs when individuals adopt the attitudes or behaviors of others because of real or imagined pressure from them
- peer pressure comes from dress, music, language, values, and leisure activities
CONGLOMERATE STRATEGIES
- the use of a combination of techniques, rather than a single approach, to improve adolescents' social skills: also called coaching
- Strategies consist of modeling, discussion, reasoning, reinforcement
FRIENDSHIP
- a subset of peers who engage in mutual companionship, support, and intimacy
- Functions of friendships: companionship, stimulation, physical support, ego support, social comparison, intimacy/affection
INTIMACY IN FRIENDSHIP
- self disclosure or sharing of private thoughts
NORMS
- rules that apply to all members of a group
ROLES
- certain positions in a group that are governed by rules and expectations
- Roles define how adolescents should behave in those positions
CLIQUES
- small groups that range from 2 to about 12 individuals and average about 5 to 6 individuals
CROWDS
- a larger group structure than cliques
- adolescents are usually members of a crowd based on reputation and may not spend much time together
- crowds are more adaptive than cliques
YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS
- important influence
- more likely to participate in community as adults
GENDER ROLES IN ADOLESCENT GROUPS
- Boys associate in larger clusters, engage in competition, conflict, ego displays, risk taking, and dominance seeking
- girls engage more in collaborative discourse rather than activity
FUNCTIONS OF DATING
- recreation
- status
- socialization
- 90% of adolescents have relationships by 12th grade
- religious beliefs and values influence dating patterns
ROMANTIC LOVE
- strong sexual and infatuation components
AFFECTIONATE LOVE
- this occurs when individuals desire to have another person near and ahve a deep, caring affection for that person
DATING SCRIPTS
- the cognitive models that adolescents and adults use to guide and evaluate dating interactions
EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE
- aware of emotional expression
- self regulatory strategies
- inner emotional states
- not becoming overwhelmed by emotional state
- discerning others' emotions
INTERNALIZING PROBLEMS
- occur when individuals turn problems inward
- include anxiety and depression
EXTERNALIZING PROBLEMS
- occur when individuals turn problems outward
- juvenile delinquency
RESILIENCE
influenced by individual factors (intelligence) and family/extrafamilial factors (close relationships)
MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
- individual experiences a major depressive episode and depressed characteristics for at least 2 weeks or longer
- Depressed characteristics include lethargy and hopelessness
- daily functioning becomes impaired
SYMPTOMS OF DEPRESSION
- At least 5 of 9 must be present during a 2 week period to be characterized as major depressive disorder
- depressed mood most of the day
- reduced interest or pleasure in all or most activities
- significant change in weight or appetite
- trouble sleeping or sleeping too much
- psychomotor agitation or retardation
- fatigue or loss of energy
- feeling worthless or guily
- problems thinking, concentrating, making decisions
- recurrent thoughts of death and suicide
EATING DISORDERS
- obesity- caused by heredity and environment
- Anorexia nervosa- involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation
- Bulimia nervosa- individual follos a binge and purge pattern
SUICIDE
- rare in childhood, escalates in early adolescence
- Females contemplate more while males commit
- Sexual orientation, family instability or unhappiness, and genetic factors play a role in suicide
- copy cat suicides
TOP 3 CAUSES OF DEATH IN ADOLESCENCE
- Accidents- most involve automobiles
- Homicide
- Suicide- adolescent suicide rate has tripled since 1950
CONDUCT DISORDER
- the psychiatric diagnostic category used when multiple behaviors occur over a 6 month period
- behaviors: truancy, running away, physical cruelty to people and animals, setting fires, using drugs & alcohol
VIOLENCE AND YOUTH
- At risk when using drugs and alcohol, have access to weapons, antisocial, and exposure to violence
JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
- Index offenses: criminal acts at any age, such as robbery, rape and homicide
- Status offenses: not as serioius, but performed by youths under a specified age. Drinking under age, truancy, sexual promiscuity
TOLERANCE
- the condition in which a greater amount of a drug is needed to produce the same effect as a smaller amount used to produce
PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE
- physical need for a drug that is accompanied by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPENDENCE
- strong desire and craving to repeat the use of a drug for various emotional reasons, such as a feeling of well-being and reduction of distress
ALCOHOL EFFECTS
- depressant
- damages the hippocampus
- Risk factors include: heredity, family influences, peer relations, and personality
HALLUCINOGENS
- drugs that alter perceptual experiences and produce hallucinations
- LSD
- Marijuana
STIMULANTS
- drugs that increase the activity of the CNS
- Nicotine- cause lung damage and emotional problems
- Cocaine- unpredictable risk
- Amphetamines
- Ecstasy
DEPRESSANTS
- slow the CNS, bodily functions, and behavior
- barbiturates
- opiates
ANABOLIC STEROIDS
- drugs derived from the male sex hormone testosterone
- promote muscle growth and lean body mass
DRUG USE
- maladaptive coping mechanism
- interferes with competent coping skills and decision making
- decreases my mid-twenties
- influenced by parents, peers and social support
PUBERTY
- the period of hysical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that take place primarily in early adolescence
HORMMONES
- chemicals secreted by the endocrine glands
- carried through the body by the blood stream
- Androgens are male hormones
- estrogens are female hormones
HYPOTHALAMUS
- structure in the brain
- secretes releasing factor
- monitors levels of androgens and estrogens
PITUITARY GLAND
- sends info to gonads
- regulates other glands
GONADS
- testes and ovaries
- secretes sex hormones
ADRENARCHE
- involves hormonal changes in teh adrenal glands
- 6-9 years of age
- Gonadarche- involving sexual maturation and development of reproductive maturity
- Spermarche- a boy's first ejaculation of semen
- Menarche- a girl's first menstrual period. Age has declined because of increase in nutrition and overall healthier body
GROWTH SPURT
- occurs 2 years earlier for girls than boys on average
- Girls increase 3.5 inches per year and boys about 4 inches
- Weight gain follows roughly same timetable as height gain
- Girls gain hip boys gain shoulder
SEXUAL MATURATION IN MALES
- increase penis and testicl size
- pubic hari
- voice change
- spermarche
- armpit hair
- Facial hair
FEMALES
- breasts enlarge
- pubic hair
- menarche
PUBERTAL TIMING AND HEALTH CARE
- discussions with knowledgeable healthcare provides and parents can improve the coping abilities of the off-time adolescent
EXPERIENCE AND PLASTICITY
- brain cells can't be regenerated except the ones in the hippocampus. You can grow more branches but not trees
- Adolescent's brain can recover from injury if caught in time
NEOCORTEX
- in the cerebral cortex
- inhibits amygdala (oldest part of brain causing aggression)
SEX
- the biological dimension of being male or female
GENDER
- the sociocultural and psychological dimensions of being male or female
- Gender roles are a set of expectations that prescribes how females nad males should think, act, and feel
GENDER STEROTYPES
- broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs about females and males
SEXISM
- prejudice and discrimination against an individual because of his or her sex
RAPPORT TALK
- the language of conversation and a way of establishing connections and negotiating relationships
- Females tend to prefer private, relationship-oriented conversation
REPORT TALK
- talk that gives info
- Males tend to hold center stage through such verbal performances as story telling, joking, ad lecturing with info
GENDER AGGRESSION
- Girls are more verbally aggressive and engage in more relational aggression
- Boys are more physically aggressive
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY
- presence of both masculine and feminine characteristics
ADOLESCENT MALES
- boys are socialized to not show feelings and act tough
- need to be socialized to express anxieties and concerns
- more like to partake in premarital sex, alcohol & drugs, and delinquent activities
SEXUALLY NAIVE
- this group had low sexual self esteem and high anxiety about sex
- lower than any other group regarding sexual arousal and exploration
- consisted of 10th grade, mostly virgin, adolescent girls
SEXUALLY UNASSURED
- low sexual self esteem and high anxiety about sex
- Feel sexually unattractive, dissatisfied with their sexual behavior, perceived bodies as underdeveloped and view their bodies as unappealing
- primarily male virgins
SEXUALLY COMPETENT
- high sexual self esteem, appearing confident of sexual appeal, body, and sexual behavior
- moderate level of sexual commitment and were only somewhat anxious about sex
- 12th graders who had engaged in some form of sexual experience
SEXUALLY ADVENTUROUS
- high sexual self esteem and low sexual anxiety
- low sexual commitment and high interest in exploring sexual options
- More girls than boys and most were not virgins
SEXUALLY DRIVEN
- high sexual self esteem, felt sexually attractive and were confident in their ability to manage sexual situations
- lowest score of all groups on sexual commitment
- males who had engaged in some form of sexual activity
TRENDS AND INCIDENCE IN SEX
- increase in percentage of youth who report sexual intercourse
- proportion of females reporting sexual intercourse has increased more rapidly than males
SELF-STIMULATION
- part of the sexual activity of virtually all adolescents and one of their most frequent sexual outlets
CONTRACEPTIVE USE
- adolescents are increasing their use of contraceptive, but large numbers still do not use them
ADOLESCENT PREGNANCIES
- rates are decreasing because of fear of STDs, health classes, greater hope for future, and abortion
- higher in U.S. than other countries because unclear messages about sexuality and lack of family planning services
- adolescents lack prenatal care, parenting skills, and have lower incomes
HOMOSEXUALITY
- biological factors cause homosexuality
- sensitization, awareness with confusion, acceptance
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS
- AIDS
- genital herpes or warts
- gonorrhea
- syphilis
- chlamydia
ACHIEVEMENT
- move away from extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation
- intrinsic motivation must exist for achievement to be meaningful
- self efficacy
- goal setting, planning, and self monitoring
- expectations
- anxiety
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
- external motivational factors such as rewards and punishments
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
- internal motivational factors such as self determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort
ATTRIBUTION THEORY
- individuals driven to discover underlying causes of behavior
LOCUS OF CONTROl
- the perceived belief one has on their problems
- what caused their problems
MASTERY ORIENTATION
- individuals focus on the task rather than their ability, have positive affect, and generate solution oriented strategies that improve their performance
HELPLESS ORIENTATION
- individuals focus on their personal inadequacies, attribute difficulty to lack of ability, and display negative affect
PERFORMANCE ORIENTATION
- individuals are concerned with performance outcome rather than performance process
- winning is what matters
MOTIVATING LOW-ACHIEVING ADOLESCENTS
- determine cause of low achievement
- adolescent wants to protect its self worth
- may deliberately not try in school
- put off studying until the last minute
- everybody can be a genius
STRATEGIES OF FAILURE
- nonperformance
- sham (fake) effort
- procrastination
- setting reachable goals
ADVANTAGES OF WORK IN ADOLESCENCE
- better understanding in many areas
- based on sociohistorical context
- 80% college undergrads work to offset college costs
DISADVANTAGES OF WORK IN ADOLESCENCE
- school performance
EMOTIONAL ISOLATION
- loneliness that arises when a person lacks an intimate attachment relationship
- single, divorced, widowed
SOCIAL ISOLATION
- loneliness that arises when a person lacks a sense of integrated involvement
- causes a person to feel alienated, bored, and uneasy