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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Human development
a science that seeks to understand how people change throughout their lives.
a characteristic of development encompassing the idea that dozens of acedemic desciplines contribute data and insight to the science of development/
***numerous acedemic fields especially psycology, biology, socialogy, and education.....and many more--contribute data and insight to the science of development
a characteristic of development referring to the fact that each human life takes place within a number of contexts--historical, cultural and socioeconomic//
***human life are embedded in many contexts, inculding historical conditions, economic contraints and cultural tradition
a characteristic of development that indicates that individual--including their personalities as well as their bodies and minds change throughout life--change is ongoing, neither random or easy
ethnic group
people who share certain attributes, almost always including ancestral heritage, and often including national origin, religious, customs, and language
provides a framework of general principles that can be used to guide research and explain obersvations
a grand theory of human development that focuses on the sequence and processes by which behavior is learned (also called learning theory)
psychoanalytic theory
a grand theory of human development that holds that irrationald unconscious drives and motives many of which originate in childhood underlie human behavior
developing organism from 8 weeks after conception until birth//
**when born--even preterm at 22 wks or postterm at 41 weeks--called a baby
agents and conditions, including viruses, drugs, chemicals, stressors, and malnutrition, that can impair prenatal development and lead to birth defects or even death
the biological protection of the brain when malnutrition temporarily effects body growth
REM sleep
rapid eye movement sleep, a stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed lids, dreaming, and rapid brain waves
experience dependent
refers to brain functions that depend on particular, and variable, experiences and that therefore may or may not develop in a particular infant
experience expectant
refers to brain functions that require basic common experiences (which the infant can be expected to have ) in order to develop normally
the response of a sensory system (eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose )when it detects a stimulus
the mental processing of sensory information, when brain interprets a sensation
binocular vision
that ability to focus the two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see one image
a responsive movement that seems automatic, because it almost always occurs in reaction to a particular stimulus
gross motor skills
physical abilities involving large body movements, such as walking and jumping
fine motor skills
physical ability involving small body movements, especially of the hands and fingers, such as drawing or picking up a coin
a process that stimulates that body's immune system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease
sudden infant death syndroms (SIDS)
a situation in which a seemingly healthy infant, at least 2 months of age, dies unexpectedly in his or her sleep
the process of getting used to and object or event through repeated exposure to it
baby talk
the high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive way adults speak to infants, also called child-directed speech
trust vs. mistrust
erikson's term for the first crisis of physchosocial development, in which the infant learns wheter the world is essentially a secure place where basic needs are always met or and unpredictable arena where needs (for food, comfort) are sometimes unmet
according to Rothbart and Bates (1998) "constitutionally based individual difference in emotion, motor and attentional reactivity and self-regulation
the tendency to persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action even when it has become useless or inappropriate
fine motor skills
involve small body movements (especially those of the hands or fingers
primary prevention
actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance, such as injury, disease, or abuse
a characteristic of preoperational thought in which the young child focuses on one aspect of a situation of the exclusion of others
Piaget's term for cognitive development between the ages of about 2 and 6; characterized by centration (including egocentrism) focus on appearance, static reasoning and irreversibilty
figure out ligical ideas because thinking is limited to what they see at the moment
a sensitive structuring of the young child;s participation in learning encounters
people's understanding of who they are, usually includes appearance, personality, and abilities
a person's true understanding of emotions of another, including the abilty to figure out what would make that person feel better