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26 Cards in this Set

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____________ is characterized by persistent hyperactivity a short attention span, difficulty completing assigned tasks or schoolwork, restlessness and impulsiveness.
ADHD

Or what so many of us have after spending all night studying for a test. ADD aka Ass dragging disease
__________ is a sleep disorder characterized by daytime sleep attacks in which the person goes to sleep at any place or at any time.
Narcolepsy
Two disorders treated with CNS stimulants are ___________ and ___________.
ADHD, and narcolepsy
__________ is the most common psychiatric or neurobehavioral disorder in children.
ADHD
Studies indicate that children with ADHD are more likely to have ________ _________ mood disorders and substance abuse disorders as adolescents and adults.
Learning disabilities
Stimulate the cerebral cortex increasing metal alertness and decreasing drowsiness and fatigue.
Xanthines
Used in the treatment of narcolepsy and ADHD.
Amphetamines and methylphenidate
Closely related to drugs that share characteristics of the amphetamines as a group.
Amphetamine, dextroaphetamine (Dexedrine), and methamphetamine (desoxyn)
Frequently consumed CNS stimulant worldwide, mostly obtained from dietary sources (ex. coffee, tea, and soft drinks). Especially consumed in large quantities by nursing students who stay up all night studying.
Caffeine

Bring on the java!!!
Second line drug for the treatment of ADHD in children and adults with a low risk for abuse and dependence compared with the other drugs used for ADHD.
Atomoxetine (strattera)
Discuss the psychosocial characteristics of ADHD.
ADHD is the most common psychiatric or neurobehavioral disorder in children. It is usually diagnosed between 3 and 7 yrs of age and may affect as many as 6 to 7 % of school aged children. It is characterized by persistent hyperactivity, short attention span, difficulty completing assigned tasks or school work restlessness, and impulsiveness. Such behaviors make it difficult for the child to get along with others and to function in situations requiring controlled behavior.
Describe the signs and symptoms of narcolepsy.
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by daytime sleep attacks in which the person goes to sleep at any place or at any time. Signs and symptoms also include excessive daytime drowsiness, fatigue, muscle weakness and hallucinations at onset of sleep, and disturbances of nighttime sleep patterns.
In addition to drug treatments what might be done to treat narcolepsy?
In addition to drug therapy prevention of sleep deprivation regular sleeping and waking time avoiding shift work, and short naps may be helpful in reducing daytime sleepiness.
Describe the characteristics of CNS stimulants.
CNS stimulants act by facilitating initiation and transmission of nerve impulses that excite other cells. The drugs are somewhat selective in their actions at lower doses but tend to involve the entire CNS at higher doses. In behavior and interpersonal relationships.
How do amphetamines affect brain function?
Amphetamines increase the amounts of norepinephrine doamine,and possibly aerotonin in the brain there by producing mood elevation or euphoria increasing metal alertness and capacity for work, decreasing fatigue and drowsiness and prolonging wakefulness.
Joseph Bean a college student present to the emergency room with palpitations and signs and symptoms of CNS stimulation. He states that he has been awake for 72hrs studying and keeps awake using power drinks and caffeine. Which of the following statements indicate that this education plan has been effective?

a. Caffeine can cause life threatening health problems with excessive intake.

b. Energy drinks do not contain caffeine; if the are not combined with excessive caffeine intake the will not cause adverse side effects.

c. Caffeine did not cause my symptoms. I have the flu.

d. Caffeine is not an ingredient of energy drinks
a.

Rationale: All of the CNS stimulants including caffeine can cause life threatening health problems with excessive intake.
Which of the following are the characteristics of symptoms of narcolepsy? (select all that apply)

a. Difficult to rouse in the morning.

b. Unpredictable sleep during daytime hours.

c. Transient insomnia

d. Daytime drowsiness.
b,d

Rationale: Narcolepsy is characterized by day time drowsiness and unpredictable sleep attacks.
Which of the following effects do CNS stimulants have on behavior and attention in patients with ADHD?

a. Restoring

b. Deteriorationg

c. Improving

d. Contravening
c

Rationale: CNS stimulants improve behavior and attention in patients with ADHD.
When does ADHD usually start and resolve?

a. Starts in childhood and resolves by adolescence.

b. Starts in childhood and resolves by adulthood

c. Starts in childhood and resolves before adolescence.

d. Starts in childhood and may persist through adulthood.
d.

Rationale: ADHD usually starts in childhood and may persist through adulthood.
ADHD is characterized by which of the following? (select all that apply)

a. Hyperactivity

b. Improved retention

c. Impulsivity

d. Short attention span.
a,c,d

Rationale: ADHD is characterized by hyperactivity impulsivity and a short attention span.
Mr. Adams age 75 is given an order fro a CNS stimulant secondary to a new diagnosis of narcolepsy. He begins to experience signs and symptoms of excessive CNS stimulation. He is likely to also experience an exacerbation of which of the preexisting conditions.

a. diabetes

b. cardiac dysrhythmias

c. gout

d. hyperparthyroidism
b.

Rationale: Older adults are likely to experience anxiety confusion, insomnia, and nervousness from excessive CNS stimulation. In addition older adults often have cardiovascular disorders that may be aggravated by the cardiac stimulating effects of the drugs including dietary caffeine. In general reduced doses are safer in older adults.
Which of the following may affect medication dosage adjustment for the child with ADHD as he or she matures?

a. onset of puberty

b. change in hepatic metabolism

c. brain growth

d. Musculoskeletal growth
b.

Rationale: A drug holiday is recommended at least annually to evaluate the child's treatment regimen. Dosage adjustments are usually needed as the child grows and hepatic metabolism slows. Also drug holidays decrease weight loss and growth suppression.
Methylphenidate is commonly prescribed and usually given daily for the first 3 to 4 weeks for which of the following purposes?

a. To determine parent and child compliance.

b. To determine medication blood levels in order to modify the dose.

c. To assess the education plan and modify the plan to meet the clients needs.

d. To assess beneficial and adverse effects.
d

Rationale: Methylphenidate is commonly prescribed and is usually given daily for the first 3 to 4 weeks of treatment to allow caregivers to asses beneficial and adverse effects.
Drug therapy is indicated in which of the following circumstances (select all that apply)

a. Symptoms are mild to moderate.

b. Symptoms are moderate to severe

c. Symptoms are identified by the parents and teacher.

d. Symptoms are present for several months

e. Symptoms interfere in social academic or behavioral functioning.
b,d,e

Rationale: Drug therapy is indicated when symptoms are moderate to severe; are present for several months; and interfere in social academic or behavioral functioning.
Mrs. Gaines arrives at the ER with signs and symptoms of CNS stimulant toxicity. Treatment includes which of the following? (Select all that apply)

a. Monitor for musculoskeletal changes.

b. Monitor cardiac function.

c. Increase sensory stimulation.

d. Minimize external stimulation.
b,d

Rationale: Treatment is largely symptomatic and supportive. In General place the client in a cool room, monitor cardiac function and body temperature and minimize external stimulation. Activated charcoal 1g/kg of body weight may be given.
After caffeine is ingested orally, it achieve peak blood level within what period of time?

a. 30 to 45 mins

b. 45 to 60mins

c. 10 to 15mins

d. 15 to 20mins.
a.

Rationale: Caffeine is well absorbed from the GI tract and reaches a peak blood level within 30 to 45 mins after oral ingestion. It easily crosses the blood brain barrier and have a half life of 3.5 to 5hrs. It is extensively metabolized mainly in the liver and excreted mainly in urine.