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14 Cards in this Set

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Purposes of surveys
1.Operationally define psycholgoical constructs using self-report
2.Provide a description of a population based on a sample
Nonprobability sampling
lack of randomness
limits the generalizabiltiy of results
results in biased sample if try to make inferences to more broad population

-convenience sampling: whoever is available
-snowball sampling: participants help recruit other participants
Probability sampling
usually requires listing of entire population
simple random sampling
random selection of participants w/in a population
use random number table
systematic sampling
follow a pattern when selecting participants from listing of population
list cant be order that could cause bias
Stratified random sampling
randomly selecting participants from each group, make sure sample has same percentage as population

best when want to ensure reprensentation of groups consisting of small percentage of population
cluster sampling
all individuals from randomly selected, naturally-occuring groupings
-doesnt require listing of entire population
-requires listing of naturally-occuring groups

ex. sample of students majoring in psych; randomly select schools w/ psych departments and survey all students majoring in psyc
multistage sampling
groupings randomly selected at each level beginning w/ mos broad then finally selecting from smallest groupings

counties, towns, neighborhoods, houses
Margin of Error
-index of precision of results
-range in percentage to describe potential differences b/w survey results ("estimates") and the population
MOE based on...
Sample size: larger sample= smaller moe and more precision
Estimates: percentages, moe is largest when estimate is 50% and decreases as estimates are further from 50%
Confidence Int: often 95% used
smaller confidence interval= smaller sample size
open ended questions
allows for narrative
easier to develop
allows freedom of response
harder to tabulate
reponses are inconsistent and vary in legnth and content
closed ended questions
choice from alternatives
more difficult to develop
may limit breath of responses
easier and faster to tabulate
enhanced consistency across respondents
survey construction
instructions at beginning of each section
avoid jargons/acronyms/abbrev.
short items
avoid double-negatives
avoid double-barrelled questions
avoid leading questions
tips for closed ended questions
include "other"
use mutually exclusive alternatives instead of overlapping alternatives(only 1 response, distinct from others)
rating scale: number of points, midpoint, direction, anhors