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### 14 Cards in this Set

• Front
• Back
 Purposes of surveys 1.Operationally define psycholgoical constructs using self-report 2.Provide a description of a population based on a sample Nonprobability sampling lack of randomness limits the generalizabiltiy of results results in biased sample if try to make inferences to more broad population -convenience sampling: whoever is available -snowball sampling: participants help recruit other participants Probability sampling usually requires listing of entire population simple random sampling random selection of participants w/in a population use random number table systematic sampling follow a pattern when selecting participants from listing of population list cant be order that could cause bias Stratified random sampling randomly selecting participants from each group, make sure sample has same percentage as population best when want to ensure reprensentation of groups consisting of small percentage of population cluster sampling all individuals from randomly selected, naturally-occuring groupings -doesnt require listing of entire population -requires listing of naturally-occuring groups ex. sample of students majoring in psych; randomly select schools w/ psych departments and survey all students majoring in psyc multistage sampling groupings randomly selected at each level beginning w/ mos broad then finally selecting from smallest groupings counties, towns, neighborhoods, houses Margin of Error -index of precision of results -range in percentage to describe potential differences b/w survey results ("estimates") and the population MOE based on... Sample size: larger sample= smaller moe and more precision Estimates: percentages, moe is largest when estimate is 50% and decreases as estimates are further from 50% Confidence Int: often 95% used smaller confidence interval= smaller sample size open ended questions allows for narrative easier to develop allows freedom of response harder to tabulate reponses are inconsistent and vary in legnth and content closed ended questions choice from alternatives more difficult to develop may limit breath of responses easier and faster to tabulate enhanced consistency across respondents survey construction instructions at beginning of each section avoid jargons/acronyms/abbrev. short items avoid double-negatives avoid double-barrelled questions avoid leading questions tips for closed ended questions include "other" use mutually exclusive alternatives instead of overlapping alternatives(only 1 response, distinct from others) rating scale: number of points, midpoint, direction, anhors