Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/17

Click to flip

17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
5 ways of knowing
tenacity
authority
reason
common sense
science
Tenacity
"we have always known it to be this way"
repition->familiartiy-> acceptance

Problem: accuracy is not evaluated. difficult to change belief
authority
Parents, healthcare, education, religion, gov't
Can be beneficial or not

Problem: separation of church and state; authority figures can be incorrect
Reason
basic method of philosophy
syllogisms

Problem: original assumption may be incorrect; no way of verifying the accuracy of our assumptions
Common sense
based on past experience and perceptions

Problem: experience is limited and not systematic; influenced by biases; prevents us from understanding new ideas
Science
observation using senses
application of rules of logic to eliminate possible explanations

Problem: cannot address metaphysical questions or questions involving values; limited to what is observable
Characteristics of scientific explanations
empirical
testable
public
replicable
tentative
based on theory
Empirical
based on evidence of the senses
based on objective and systematic observation
verification
Testable
-potentially 'falsifiable'
-attempts can be made to disprove the explanation/ provide alt. explanations
-boundary conditions
-additional testing=good
Public
Peer review
peers can gauge consistency of results with new evidence and known principles
Replicable
specify details of research
operational def
Method section on APA papers
Tentative
confidence in explanation, but expl. may be faulty
cant "prove" scientific explanations, only support
Based on theory
theories help scientists understand the phenomena
verbal explanations,math, analogies
Theory provides framework for developing hypotheses, interpreting results, guiding future research
Internal Validity
aside from IV, are there other reasons for obtaining our results?
confounds?
Control attempts to eliminate/reduce alt. reasons for differences in IV
conducted in labs
External Validity
how generalized are the results?
the more controlled, the less likely that results will generalize
applied research, conducted in fields
high internal validity
basic research
artifical lab setting, doesnt generalize well to other settings or 'real world'
high external validity
applied research
conducted in 'real world' but cant rule out alt. explanations for the findings