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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
objectives of psy. research
1.describe behavior and experience
2.predict beh. and experience
3.explainn beh. and experience
4.control beh and exp
steps of scientific method
1.observe a phenomenon
2.formulate tentative explanation
3.systematic observing and data collection
4.refine and retest explanations
refine
supportive findings lead to other hypotheses to:
expand on the relationships
explore limitations of phen.
explore the causes of the relationships observed
retest
not finding support may lead to revising the prediction and testing it
variables
any characteristic that can take on 2 or more values
(height, sex, weight, mental ability, race)
Constant= variable that has only 1 value in a particular study
discrete variables
set of mutually exclusive, exhuastive categories.
-each person assigned to 1 and only 1 category
"categorical" variable
continuous variables
based on being more or less on whatever the variable refers to
difference in degree/extent, not kind
participants value can take on any from a range of values
IV
intervene by manipulating the IV
is independent of other possible causes
DV
measured, presumed effect
DV's value may depend on changes in the IV
contructs
abstract concepts that represent ideas, experience and/or beh.
operational def
descriptions of the procedures through which a variable is measured or levels of an IV are created
correlational research
has @least 1 of each of these variables: Predictor and Outcome variable

both variables are naturally-occuring, both are measured and not manipulated
reliability
degree of consistency of a measure
validity
extent to which a measurement instrument measures what it's supposed to

measure must be reliable in order for it be valid
descriptive research
adv: captures complexity of everyday behavoir; surveys, observations
dis: provides only static picture, cant tell what led to findings/what findings will result in
descriptive research stats
Do x and y seem to be related?
Control: none
Involvement: measurement (survey) or none (observation)
Inference: descriptive

can summarize, but cannot explain why
correlational approach
evaluates association b/w two naturally occuring variables
range from +1 to -1
correlational approach stats
are x and y positively/ negatively related?
Control: statistical
involvment: measurement
inference: association
experimental approach
IV variable is manipulated; precedes and influences measurements of DV
DV is measured

ICED: Independent varibale=Cause= Dependent variable
confounds
"muck" up things
variables that systematically vary with the IV and may affect DV
ex. cup color

want to eliminate any potential confound; they weaken the inference that the IV was the cause of the differences
experimental method stats
If X, then Y?
Control: yes
involvment: Manipulates IV, measure DV
Infernece: causal
experimental method stats
If X, then Y?
Control: yes
involvment: Manipulates IV, measure DV
Infernece: causal