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### 22 Cards in this Set

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 objectives of psy. research 1.describe behavior and experience 2.predict beh. and experience 3.explainn beh. and experience 4.control beh and exp steps of scientific method 1.observe a phenomenon 2.formulate tentative explanation 3.systematic observing and data collection 4.refine and retest explanations refine supportive findings lead to other hypotheses to: expand on the relationships explore limitations of phen. explore the causes of the relationships observed retest not finding support may lead to revising the prediction and testing it variables any characteristic that can take on 2 or more values (height, sex, weight, mental ability, race) Constant= variable that has only 1 value in a particular study discrete variables set of mutually exclusive, exhuastive categories. -each person assigned to 1 and only 1 category "categorical" variable continuous variables based on being more or less on whatever the variable refers to difference in degree/extent, not kind participants value can take on any from a range of values IV intervene by manipulating the IV is independent of other possible causes DV measured, presumed effect DV's value may depend on changes in the IV contructs abstract concepts that represent ideas, experience and/or beh. operational def descriptions of the procedures through which a variable is measured or levels of an IV are created correlational research has @least 1 of each of these variables: Predictor and Outcome variable both variables are naturally-occuring, both are measured and not manipulated reliability degree of consistency of a measure validity extent to which a measurement instrument measures what it's supposed to measure must be reliable in order for it be valid descriptive research adv: captures complexity of everyday behavoir; surveys, observations dis: provides only static picture, cant tell what led to findings/what findings will result in descriptive research stats Do x and y seem to be related? Control: none Involvement: measurement (survey) or none (observation) Inference: descriptive can summarize, but cannot explain why correlational approach evaluates association b/w two naturally occuring variables range from +1 to -1 correlational approach stats are x and y positively/ negatively related? Control: statistical involvment: measurement inference: association experimental approach IV variable is manipulated; precedes and influences measurements of DV DV is measured ICED: Independent varibale=Cause= Dependent variable confounds "muck" up things variables that systematically vary with the IV and may affect DV ex. cup color want to eliminate any potential confound; they weaken the inference that the IV was the cause of the differences experimental method stats If X, then Y? Control: yes involvment: Manipulates IV, measure DV Infernece: causal experimental method stats If X, then Y? Control: yes involvment: Manipulates IV, measure DV Infernece: causal