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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
DIGIT-SPAN TEST (STM)
measures attention & STM
HIGHER ORDER CONDITIONING
new stimuli that takes on characterisitics of US
PERMENANCE (LTM)
memories are permenant b/c of constructive memory= as new memory comes in old ones are excluded
CONTINGENT (CLASSICAL)
get reinforcement immediately after & only after desired response
SENSORY MEMORY
pose an exact copy for few sec. - hold echo, sound, pic
RESPONSE CHAINS (CLASSICAL)
series of event for RF
PRIMARY OPERANT REINFORCER
not learned (food, water, & air)
PHOBIC
unrealistic fear of some specific object or situation
Cognitive Map
mental representation
UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE
an innate replex response elicited by and UC
PUNISHER
anything that decreases bx
REINFORCEMENT
any event that increases the chance that a response will occur
MAINTENANCE REHEARSAL
repeat {phone #}
SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY
reappearance of distinguished response after period of non-exposure to CS
GENERALIZATION (OPERANT)
respond to stimuli similiar to ones present when you got reinforcement
STIMULUS GENERALIZATION
tendancy to respond to things similar to CS
SHORT-TERM MEMORY/ WORKING MEMORY
hold small amt. of info. for brief period - stored by sound - mental scratch pad - sensitive to interruption
NEUTRAL STIMULUS
produces no response naturally
SHAPING
reinforce desired approximations of response (shape response)
PAVLOV
Physiologist who discovered classical conditioning - studied saliva of dog during digestion
FIXED RATIO (PARTIAL)
reinforcement occurs after set # of responses - fastest responding
CONDITIONED RESPONSE
learned response elicited by a CS
NEGATIVE ATTENTION SEEKING
innappropriately use reinforcement & extinction
STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION
give CR only for CS
FEEDBACK
info. on affect of bx
VICARIOUS CONDITIONING
learn CR from others
VARIABLE RATIO (PARTIAL)
reinforcement after variable # of responses {slot machines}
ANTECEDENTS
events that happen before a response
PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT
not every correct response gets reinforced - more resistance to extinction
OPERANT REINFORCER
anything that follows a response is likely to increase response
RESISTANCE TO EXTINCTION
person continues response even after reinforcement is stopped (resists)
TASTE AVERSION
avoid b/c of past experience
SECONDARY OPERANT REINFORCER
nothing biologically significant about reinforcer but can still be highly reinforcing (money)
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
type of learning that is contentgent upon what happens b/f a response
POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
increases likelihood for response by providing something desirable
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
bx guided from what happened before - automatic - Pavlov's experiement
RECODING
info. chunks are made up of bits grouped in larger units
CONSEQUENCES
events that happen after a response
CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT
every response gets reinforced - extinction occurs quickly when stopped
DESENSITIZATION
(therapy) expose person to gradations of feared object (steps to overcome fear)
DISCRIMINATION (OPERANT)
use context clues to know if u will receive reinforcement
SKINNER BOX/ CONDITIONING CHAMBER
(Operant) 1. motivated rat 2. rat receives food when hits lever 3. once realizes, he starts hitting lever more
OPERANT EXTINCTION
weakening of response b/c no longer reinforced
RESPONSE
any identifiable bx - can be covert or overt
ELABORATIVE REHEARSAL
more efficient - enhance meaning of info.
EXTINCTION
lack of US when CS is present
ESCAPE LEARNING
(neg RF) punishment teaches escape learning
LEARNING
relatively permenant change in bx or knowledge due to experience
DUAL MEMORY
combine STM and LTM
UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS
stimulus innately capable of eliciting a response
VARIABLES AFFECTING PUNISHMENT
1. Immediacy
2. Consistency
3. Sufficiently Intense (degree of punishment)
CONDITIONED STIMULUS
stimulus that evokes a response b/c it has been repeatedly paired w/ an US
MILLER
stated that 5-9 things are working in head at one time
OPERANT CONDITIONING/
INSTRUMENTAL
(B.F. Skinner) bx is guided by consequences (voluntary)
REHEARSAL
repetition forces into LTM
CONTINUOUS (CLASSICAL)
2 things close in time
ALBERT BANDURA
"Bo-bo Doll Experiment" - kids repeated what they saw
SUPERSTITIOUS BX
repeats exact bx that caused reinforcement
POSITIVE PUNISHMENT
applying an aversive (neg) stimulus to decrease bx {spanking}
THORNDIKE'S LAW OF EFFECT
bx that is reinforced is more likely to happen again
SELECTIVE ATTENTION
focus on selected portion of sensory input (tune in & out)
ELIZABETH LOFTUS
psychologist; researced reconstructive memory= constructive processing; leading questions influence judgement of facts
FIXED INTERVAL (PARTIAL)
reinforcement given for correct response only after certain amt. of time
RECOVERED MEMORIES
bring back memories from childhood; false memories can occur
VARIABLE INTERVAL (PARTIAL)
reinforcement given after varied period of time - most likely to cause extinction
RETRO ACTIVE
new learning interferes w/ old learning
NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
increases likelihood of response by taking away something undesirable
PROACTIVE
old learning interferes w/ new learning
AVOIDANCE LEARNING
make response to postpone or prevent something aversively {lying}
MILLER'S MAGIC #
7+-2
LONG TERM MEMORY
lasting storehouse for meaningful info. - limitless - based on meaning
PRIMARY
remembering first items of a list converted to LTM
MEMORY
active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters, and recovers info.
CONSTRUCTIVE PROCESSING
gaps in memory may be filled in by logic, guessing, or new info.; personal
NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT
"Response Cost" - take away something pleasant
RECENCY
items at the end of the list b/c they are recent and still in STM
REDINTERGRATIVE MEMORIES
memories that flow from one another.
SPACED PRACTICE
better to study in blocks; take breaks
PROCEDURAL
memory based on skills or procedures
WHOLE LEARNING
study everything at once
TIP-OF-TONGUE
feel like you know answer but not right away
PART LEARNING
study a section at a time
LOFTUS & PALMER
filmed car accident; phrased diff. wording of a ?; people changed answers
SERIAL POSITION EFFECT
tendency to remember the first and last words of a list
PSEUDOMEMORIES
"false memories"
IMPROVE MEMORY
knowledge of results, recitation, rehearsal, selection, organization, "whole v/s part learning", "serial position effect", memory cues, over learning, "spaced & mass practice", sleep, eat, extended time, review, strategies
EPISODIC
autobiographical= based on you life- more likely to be forgotten
PROGRESSIVE PART METHOD
study section 1 then continue adding a section to 1st
3 TYPES OF LTM
semantic
episodic
procedural
SUPPRESSION
conscious; active effort to keep out of mind
NETWORK MODEL
things closely related to the topic are easier to respond to
SERIAL POSITION EFFECT
spend extra time on middle sections; they are most likely to be forgotten
SEMANITC
encyclopedia or dictionary in your head-durable and constant
FLASHBULB MEMORIES
highly vivid; formed from something emotional
RECALL
produce facts or info all on your own
RECOGNITION
(multiple choice)
-recognize answer
-superior to recall
REPRESSION
unconscious; motivated forgetting
PROACTIVE LEARNING
interference in learning
MASS PRACTICE
cram
DISTRACTORS
false items are included
MNEMONIC STRATEGIES
make unusual hints; use mental pics; make things meaningful; makes info. familiar
ROTE LEARNING
repeating things; maintenance learning; no thought involved
POSITIVE TRANSFER OF TRAINING
task learned in one area helps in another
2 TYPES OF TRANSFER OF TRAINING
positive
negative
NEGATIVE TRANSFER OF TRAINING
training in 1 area will conflict w/ next