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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
My-side Bias
tendency to pay attention to evidence & arguments that support one's existing beliefs
Split-Half
scores on 1/2 test match scores on other 1/2
Developmental Psy
conception till death
Graphology
handwriting
Parascience
system that resembles science but is not truly scientific
"The Bell Curve"
1994 - Hurnstein & Murry;
"Blacks score 15 pts. below average due to generic heritage"
Empericism
scientific/collect data
Phrenology
feels shape of skull
Control group
group of subjects exposed to all experimental conditions or variables except the ind. var.
Reliability
achieve nearly same score on same test
Cognitive
thinking, language, problem solving
Counseling Psy.
treat milder emotional problems & Bx disturbances
Endorphins
class of chemicals produced by pituitary gland that are similar in structure & pain-killing effect to opiate drugs such as morphine
Dove
made test of black slang words
Biophsychology
biological processes- nervous system- brain, physiology, genetics
Psychiatrist
med. dr. who treats mental disorders
Meta-analysis
statistical technique for combining the results of many studies on same subject
Test-retest
test again (week later)
Personality
"Big Five"
Astrology
birthday & postitions of stars & planets
repression
unconscious process by which memories, thoughts or impulses are held out of awareness
Psychometrics
mental measurement or testing, such as personality & intelligence testing
SQ4R
Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Relate, Review
falsifiable
defines in a way that it's poss. to prove wrong
Determinism
doctrine that all Bx has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices and actions if all such causes were known
Terman
made Binet's intelligence scale useful in America - "Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, 4th Edition" (Binet-4)
Comparative
using different species
Experimenter Effect
experimenter influences subject's Bx
Gestalt Psy
study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts
Philosophy
formal study of knowledge, reality, & human nature
Psy's goals
1. describe 2. understand
3. predict 4. control
Jane Goodall
notices chimp uses grass as tool
Anthropomorphic Fallacy
error of attributing human thoughts, feelings, or motives to animals
Criterion Validity
compare score to actual performance
Overt Bx
observable
Barnum Effect
"a little something for everybody"
Frame of Reference
mental or emotional perspective used for judging & evaluating events
Tryon
study intelligence in animals
-maze bright & maze dull rats
-did not prove
Structuralism
1. What?
2. description
3. problem-> peeps diff.& disagree
Clinical Psy.
research & treat mental/emotional problems
Expermimental group
group of subjects exposed to ind. variable or experimental condition
Wechsler
defined Intelligence = global capacity to act purposely, think rationally, & deal w/ envirn. (get through life easily)
1. Adult-Intelligence Scale = WAIS III
2. Intelligence Scale for Children = WISC III
Sensation and Perception
using senses
Palmistry
look at lines on hand
stimulus
physical energy that has some effect on an organism & evokes a response
Males better at
math, spacial skills
Titchener
Structuralism
Naturalistic Observation
study subjects in natural setting
Scientific Observation
answer questions
Aptitude
capacity for learning certain abilities
Covert Bx
"covered"
Correlational Studies
relationship b/w 2 things
Wundt
1. conscience experience
2. introspection
3. Experimental Self-Observation
IQ=
MA/CA X 100

MA = mental age
CA = chronoligical age
Functionalism
1. adaptation
2. mind functions to adapt to environ.
3. natural selection from Darwin
4. adaptive Bx
Single-Blind
blind subject
Research Method
systematic science
Validity
ability of a test to measure what it claims to measure (scores consistent & highly correlated)
Watson
Behaviorism
Survey Method
give group carefully worded questions
"Father of Psy"
Wundt
Phenylketonuria
lacks enzyme
Behaviorism
1. overt Bx
2. relationship b/w stimuli & Bx
3. ideas on Pavlov = condition responses
Humanistic
1. pos. aspects
2. Subjective Human Experience = "free will"
3. Self-Image = perceive urself
4. Self-Actualization = developing ur potential
James
Functionalism
Equivalent-forms
2 versions of a test
Psychology
Study of mind and Bx
Scientific Method
1. observe
2. define
3. hypothesis
4. evidence/test
5. publish results
6. propose theory
Familial
retardation runs in families but not genetic
(nutrition, emotional support, medical care)
Psychoanalyst
"Freudian therapy"
Binet
France - made 1st test on intelligence
Observer Bias
experimenter looks for & records specific details
1st group test
Army Alpha - find military officers for WWI
uncritical acceptance
believe pos. things
Multiple Aptitude Test
measures 2 or more abilities
Cultural Relativity
judge Bx accroding to culture
eugenics movement
(Binet-4 started) encourage or discourage peeps to reproduce
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
act in ways that fulfill label
Special Aptitude Test
used for specific areas
Clinical Method
case study on 1 subject
Fragil-X
2nd most common; males; hereditary; mild at birth - profound at adulthood
Psychoanalytic
Bx influenced by unconscious thoughts
standardization
1. instructions 4 test
2. norms 4 test
Field Experiments
regular life happens "natural"
<70
mental retardation
Double-Blind
blind experimenter and subject
Microcephaly
small brain
Observational Record
formal log of Bx (videotape)
Down Syndrome
most common; short life; xtra 21st chromosome; father's sperm at fault 25%
Rogers & Maslow
Humanistic
>130
gifted
Eclectic Psychologists
"pick and choose"
Severely Retardation
IQ 25-40; 4%
Skinner
Radical Behaviorist
Profoundly Retarded
IQ 0-25; 1%
5 Maj. Perspectives Influencing Psychological Thought
1. psychodynamic
2. behaviorism
3. humanism
4. biopsychological
5. cognitive
Terminal Decline
drop in IQ of elderly before their death
Freud
Psychoanalytic
Mildly Retarded
IQ 55-70; 85%
-potential to live normal lives
fallacy of pos. instances
look for things that confrim expectations
Cretanism
insufficient supply of thryoid hormone
Biopsychological
explain Bx due to physical things (brain, heredity)
Femals better at
memorization, vocal skills, vocabulary
Operational Def.
precise procedure to define concept
Moderate Retardation
IQ 40-55; 10%
-self-help skills
Observer Effect
change in subject's Bx from being observed
Hydrocephaly
water on brain; build up of cerebrospinal fluid
Placebo Effect
changes occur due to peep's expectations