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180 Cards in this Set

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How does the textbook define intelligence?
The ablility to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment
Which two scientists were the first to attempt to measure intelligence?
Sir Francis Galton
Alfred Binet
What is the definition of the “mental age” that Alfred Binet tested?
The average level of intelligence for a certain age level in children
What is the Stanford-Binet test?
Standard for measuring mental aptitude in the United States
What was the original “formula” for IQ?
IQ = (mental age : chronological age) X 100
Do modern IQ tests still use the concept of mental age? Why or why not?
No. It is less useful for people over age 16.
What is the average IQ score?
100
What is the psychometric approach to the study of intelligence?
Identifies and measures abilities that underlie individual differences in performance
Provides a measurement-based map of the mind
How is factor analysis used in the psychometric approach?
Indicates what tests are measuring
It finds out which test socres cluster together and which are correlated to others
What is the difference between general intelligence and specific intelligence?
General intelligence is basic knowledge and specific knowledge is complex
What is the g factor?
General intelligence
Crystallized intelligence
Applying previously acquired knowledge to current problems
(i.e. vocab and info tests)
Fluid intelligence
Problem solving in which personal experience does not provide a solution
(depends on central nervous system)
What is the three-stratum theory of cognitive abilities?
A hierachical model that establishes three levels of mental skills: GENERAL, BROAD, and NARROW
What is the cognitive process approach to the study of intelligence?
Explore the specific information-processing and cognitive processes that underlie intellectual ability
What are the three components to Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?
Metacomponents, Performance components, Knowledge-acuqisition components
What is emotional intelligence?
Being aware of yours and others' emotionos, self-motivation, controlling emotions
What test is the most widely used intelligence test in the United States today?
Wechsler tests
What are the two classes of subtests on this test?
verbal and performance
What is the difference between an achievement test and an aptitude test?
Achievement measure what you've already learned
Aptitude measures potential for learning
What is the textbook’s definition of a psychological test?
Method for measuring individual differences related to some psychological concept based on a sample of relevant behavior in a controlled situation
What is reliability?
Consistency of measurement
What are the three types of reliability?
Test-retest reliability
Internal consistency
Interjudge reliability
What is validity?
How well a test measures what it's supposed to measure
What are the three types of validity?
Construct validity
Content validity
Criterion-related validity
What is standardization?
The development of norms
Rigorously contolled testing procedures
How is standardization related to norms and the normal distribution?
27
What is the Flynn Effect?
Rising curve of IQ throughout the years
By how much has IQ been “increasing” over the past century?
3 points per decade
28 points since 1910
What is static testing?
Traditional testing
What is the advantage of dynamic testing?
Examiner gives respondent feedback on how to improve and observes if he/she utilizes it
How are genes and environment related to a person’s intelligence?
More genes people have in common, more similar IQs are
What are the two types of test bias?
Outcome bias (underestimates inellectual ability)
Predictive bias (successfully predicts criteria for some groups but not others)
Do men and women have identical performances on intelligence tasks?
Men - spatial tasks and target-directed motor skills
Women - perceptual speed and ideational fluency
What level of IQ is considered “gifted”?
130 and higher
What level of intelligence is considered “mentally retarded”?
Between 50 and 70
How does the textbook define motivation?
The process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal-directed behavior
Instincts
inherited characteristic that automatically produces a particular response when exposed to stimulus
Homeostasis
Internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain
Drives
States of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension
Caused by disruption to homeostasis
How do instincts, homeostasis, and drives influence our behavior?
Regulate hunger/thirst
Increase arousal
BAS (behavioral activation system)
roused to action by signals of reward and positive need gratification
BIS (behavioral inhibition system)
responds to stimuli that signal potential pain, nonreinforcement, and punishment
Expectancy x value theory
Goal directed behavior is JOINTLY influenced by:
1. person's expectancy that a particular behavior will get you to the goal
2. How positively/negatively you value the goal
Extrinsic motivation
Performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment
Intrinsic motivation
Performing an activity for its own sake
How are Freudian instincts different from biological instincts?
Freudians instincts are disguised by acceptable behavior
7. What is the drive-reduction theory?
48
8. What is the Thematic Apperception Test?
49
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy
A progression containing deficiency needs at the bottom and human growth needs at the top
What is the ultimate human motive according to Maslow?
Self-actualization - represents need to fulfill potential, to live "deeply"
10. What is the difference (discussed in lecture) between d-motives and b-motives?
52
Self-determination theory
Focuses on three fundemental psychological needs: COMPETENCE, AUTONOMY, and RELATEDNESS
Humanists
Metabolism
The body's rate pf energy (caloric) utilization
Set point
Biologically determined standard around which body weight is regulated
Basal metabolic Rate
56
How is the Basal metabolic rate affected by age
57
Glucose
Sugar that is the body's and brain's major source of fuel
Cholecystoinin (CCK)
Peptide that helps produce satiety
Travels to brain to decrease food intake
Leptin
Hormone secreted by fat cells
Decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure
How do environmental factors affect food intake?
When, how, and what we eat
Anorexia Nervosa
Intense fear of being fat and restrict food intake to starvation
Bulimia nervosa
Binge-eating and purging food
Four stages of Sexual response cycle
Excitement
Plateau
Orgasm
Resolution
What does the term sexual orientation refer to?
Emotional and erotic preference for partners of a particular sex
Why do we affiliate with other people?
To obtain positive stimulation
To receive emotional support
To gain attention
To permit social comparison
Sexual strategies theory
Mating strategies and preferences that reflect inherited tendencies
Social structure theory
Men and women display different mating preferences beacause society directs them into different social roles
Need for Achievment
Positive desire to accomplish tasks and compete successfully with standards of excellence
Achievement goal theory
Focus on manner in which success is defined both by individual and within achievement situation itself
What is the difference between a mastery orientation and an ego orientation?
Mastery - personal improvement, maximum effort
Ego - outperforming others
What is the motivational climate?
Rewards either mastery or ego approach
What are the three basic types of motivational conflict?
Approach-approach
(2 favorable options)
Avoidance-avoidance
(2 shitty options)
Approach-avoidance
(being attracted and repelled by same goal)
Emotions
Feeling states that involve a pattern of cognitive, psysiologicalm and behavioral reactions to events
Eliciting stimuli
Stimuli that trigger COGNITIVE APPRAISALS and EMOTIONAL RESPONSES
Cognitive appraisals
Interpretations and meanings that we attach to sensory stimuli
What areas of the brain are involved in emotional responses?
Amygdala
Thalamus
Cerebral Cortex
Expressive behaviors
Observable emotional displays
27. How does culture influence the expression of emotions?
79
James-Lange Somatic Theory
Our bodily reactions determine the subjective emotion we experience
Cannon-Bard Theory
Subjective experience of emotion and physiological arousal DON'T cause one another
Facial-Feedback Hypothesis
Feedback from facial muscles to the brain plays a key role in determining NATURE and INTESITY of emotions
What makes people happy?
Development of close relationships
Make time for enjoyable activities
Nurture physical well being
Open to downward comparison
What is the difference between downward comparison and upward comparison?
Upward - viewing ourselves as worse off than standard
Downward - seeing ourselves better off than the standard
1. What is the textbook’s definition of personality?
85
2. What are the three structures that Freud divided personality into?
86
Reality principle
87
Pleasure principle
88
Defense mechanism (TABLE 12.1 on pg 445!)
89
5 Psychosexual stages
90
5. How are fixation and regression related to Freud’s psychosexual stages?
106
Oedipus complex
107
What stage does Oedipus complex occur
108
7. How was Carl Jung’s theory on personality different from Freud’s? (i.e. personal unconscious, collective unconscious, archetypes)
109
Phenomenology
110
9. What is George Kelly’s personal construct theory?
111
What test did Kelly use to measure individuals’ personal construct systems?
112
10. What is the central concept of Carl Roger’s theory?
113
11. How are self-consistency and congruence related to Roger’s theory?
114
How is the need for positive regard related to Roger's theory?
115
12. What did Carl Rogers define as a “fully functioning person”?
116
Self-esteem
117
Self-verification
118
Self enhancement
119
Personality traits
120
15. What is the factor analysis approach to defining personality traits?
121
Five factor model
122
17. Are personality traits typically stable over time?
123
Evolutionary personality theory
124
Strategic pluralism
125
Temperament
126
19. How is temperament considered to be the building blocks of personality?
127
20. What is the focus of the social-cognitive theories?
128
Reciprocal determinism
129
21. What is Rotter’s concept of internal-external locus of control?
130
22. According to Albert Bandura, what is a key factor in how people regulate their lives?
131
Behavior-outcome expectancies
132
Self-reinforcement processes
133
24. How does culture influence personality?
134
Gender schema
135
What are the different types of personality assessment?
136
1. What does the vulnerability-stress model suggest about psychological disorders?
137
2. What does the term “abnormal” mean?
138
3. What is the major psychiatric classification system used in the United States?
139
4. How do reliability and validity play a role in diagnosing psychological disorders?
140
5. In legal terms, what do competency and insanity refer to?
141
Anxiety
142
Anxiety disorders
143
5 main types of anxiety disorders
144
Phobic disorder
145
Generalized anxiety disorder
146
Panic disorder
147
Obsession Compulsive Disorder
148
Obsessions
149
Compulsions
150
11. What are the four major symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder?
151
12. Are biological factors related to the cause of anxiety disorders?
152
Neurotic anxiety
153
Somatoform Disorder
154
Hypochondrias
155
Pain Disorder
156
Conversion Disorder
157
Dissociative disorder
158
Psychogenic fugue
159
Psychogenic amnesia
160
Dissociative identity disorder
161
What causes DID?
162
Mood disorder
163
Depression
164
Different types of depression
165
Bipolar disorder
166
How is mania related to bipolar disorder?
167
19. What does it mean to have personality-based vulnerability to mood disorders?
168
Depressive cognitive triad
169
Depressive attributional pattern
170
Learned helplessness theory
171
Schizophrenia
172
Delusions
173
Hallucinations
174
How are delusions and hallucinations related to schizophrenia?
175
4 Subtypes of schizophrenia
176
23. What is the difference between positive symptoms and negative symptoms?
177
24. What are the causes of schizophrenia?
178
Dopamine hypothesis
179
25. What are the possible sociocultural causes of schizophrenia?
180
25. What are the possible sociocultural causes of schizophrenia?
181
Personality disorder
182
Antisocial personality disorder
183
Borderline personality disorder
184
Attention deficit/hpyeractivity disorder
185
Is ADHD more common in boys or girls?
186
Autistic disorder
187
Is autistic disorder more common in boys or girls?
188
Common characteristics of autistic disorder
189
Possible causes of autistic disorder
190
What did Sir Frances Galton focus on?
Hereditary Genius
Competence motivation
Need to master new challenges to perfect skills
Autonomy
Represents an attempt to achieve greater freedom and regulation by the self
Relatedness
Self's desire to form meaningful bonds with others
What is social comparison?
Comparing our beliefs, feelings, and behaviors with those of other people