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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Conception occurs when fertilization creates a ____ (a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg)
The ______ period extends from conception to birth (usually 9 months)
The _____ stage is the first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception
The _____ is a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother's bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother.
The ______ stage is the 2nd stage of prenatal devlpmnt (2 weeks to 2 months);also a period of great vulnerability , as most physiological structures are being formed
The ____ stage is the 3rd stage (2 months through birth)
Sometime b/w 22 to 26 weeks the fetus reaches the _____--the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth
age of viability
________ during the prenatal period has been linked to birth complications and other subsequent problems
maternal malnutrition
Maternal ____ can be very dangerous; risks depend on the drug used, the dose and phase of devlpmnt
drug use
_____ is a collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
____ and ____ can be trans mitted to offspring during the birth process.
genital herpes

_____ refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activites.
motor devlpmnt
Motor devlpmnt follows ______ (head-to-foot) and ______ (center-outward) trends and depends in part on physical growth.

Early motor devlpment depends on both ____(devlpment that reflects the gradual unfolding of one's gentic blueprint) and ______

_____ indicate the average age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities
devlpmental norms
_____ refers to characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity.
_______ studies compare a group of participants of differing age at a single point in time; quicker, easier, cheaper
______ studies observe one group of participants over a period of time; more sensitve to devlpmntal changes.
_____ and ____ found three basic styles of temperament

___% are ____ children (tend to be happy, regular in sleep and eating, adaptable, not easily upset)

___% are _____ children (less happy, less regular in eating and sleeping, slower in adapting to change)

____ % are ____ children (glum. erratic in sleep and eating, resistant to change, relatively irritable)

The remaining __% showed a mixture of these 3 temperaments
Fairly strong temperament correlation at age _____ and _____.
3 months

10 years
_____ refers to the close, emotional bonds of affection that develope between infants and their caregivers
First manifestations of ______ (emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment) occur at 6 to 8 months
separation anxiety
___% of all children develope ____ attachment style (do sisplay sep. anxiety, fairly easily comforted)

___ % develope _____ attachment style (huge levels of distress when caregiver leaves--positivity; when caregiver returns, not easily comforted, sometimes pushes away -- negativity)

10 % develope _____ attachment sytle (lack of attachment)
A ____ attachment fosters self-esteem, persistence, curiosity, and self-reliance, among other desirable trais.
A ____ is a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established.
Stage theories assume that individuals must progress through a eries of specified stages in a paricular order and that development is marked by major______.
_____'s theory of personality development or stage theory proposes that individuals eveolve through 8 stages over the life span.
In each stage the person wrestles with 2 opposing tendencies evoked by the stage's ______.
psychosocial crisis
Stage 1 (birth to age 1)
Trust vs. Mistrust

Is my world supportive and predictable?
Stage 2 (2 to 3)
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Can i do things myself or must i always rely on others?
Stage 3 (3-6 years)
Initiative vs. guilt

Am I good or bad?
Stage 4 (age 6 to puberty)
Industry vs. Inferiority

Am I compentent or worthless?
Stage 5 (adolescense)
Indentity vs. Confusion

Who am I and where am i going?
Stage 6 (early adulthood)
Intimacy vs. Isolation

Shall I share my life with another or live alone?
Stage 7 (Middle adulthood)
Generativity vs. Self-absorbtion

Concern for future genreations; Will i produce something of real value?
Stage 8 (Late adulthood)
Integrity vs. despair

Have i lived a full life?
______ refers to transitions in youngster's patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving.
cognitive devlpmnt
_____'s stage theory of development proposed that children's thought processes go through a series of 4 major stages
The _____ stage (birth to 2) involves the coordination of sensory input and motor reponses.
The key advance during the sensori motor period is the child's grasp on the concept of _____ (when a child recongnizes that an object exists even when out of sight)
object permanence
The _____ period (2 to 7 years) is marked by certain deficenices in thinking--concentration, irreversibility, and egocentrism.
Piaget's term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance.
_____ is the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem
____ is the inabilty to envison reversing an action
_____ in thinking is characterized by a limited abilyt to share another person's view point (do u have a sister? your sister have a sister?)
During the _____ period (7 to 11 years), children develope the ability to perform operations on mental represntations, making them capable of conservation and heirarchy classification.
concrete operations
The _____ period (11+) involves mastery over abstract concepts.
formal operational
Kohlberg's stage theory

At the ____ level, children think in terms of external authority.

Stage 1- Punishment orientation
Stage 2 - Naive Reward oreintation
Kohlberg's stage theory

Older children at the _____ level see rules as necessary for maintaining social order.

Stage 3 - Good boy/good girl orientation
Satge 4 - Authority oreintation (society's rules follwed rigidly)
Kohlberg's stage theory

The ____ level involves working out a personal code of ethics.

Stage 5 - Social contract orientation (society's rule viewed as fallible)
Stage 6- Individual principles and conscience orientation (abstract ethichal principles--equity and justice)
____ is the unquestioning adopiton of parental or societal values
_____ is the active struggle for a sense of identity
_____ is the absence of struggle for identiy, with no obvious concern about it.
Identity diffusion
______ is the successful achievement of a sense of identity
identity achievement
____ is a person's notion of a devlpmental schedule that specifies what he should have accomplished by certain points in life.
social clock