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61 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Conception occurs when fertilization creates a ____ (a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg)
zygote
The ______ period extends from conception to birth (usually 9 months)
prenatal
The _____ stage is the first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception
germinal
The _____ is a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother's bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother.
placenta
The ______ stage is the 2nd stage of prenatal devlpmnt (2 weeks to 2 months);also a period of great vulnerability , as most physiological structures are being formed
embryonic
The ____ stage is the 3rd stage (2 months through birth)
fetal
Sometime b/w 22 to 26 weeks the fetus reaches the _____--the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth
age of viability
________ during the prenatal period has been linked to birth complications and other subsequent problems
maternal malnutrition
Maternal ____ can be very dangerous; risks depend on the drug used, the dose and phase of devlpmnt
drug use
_____ is a collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
____ and ____ can be trans mitted to offspring during the birth process.
genital herpes

AIDS
_____ refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activites.
motor devlpmnt
Motor devlpmnt follows ______ (head-to-foot) and ______ (center-outward) trends and depends in part on physical growth.
cephalocaudal

proximodistal
Early motor devlpment depends on both ____(devlpment that reflects the gradual unfolding of one's gentic blueprint) and ______
maturation

learning
_____ indicate the average age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities
devlpmental norms
_____ refers to characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity.
temperament
_______ studies compare a group of participants of differing age at a single point in time; quicker, easier, cheaper
cross-sectional
______ studies observe one group of participants over a period of time; more sensitve to devlpmntal changes.
longitudinal
_____ and ____ found three basic styles of temperament
Thomas

Chess
___% are ____ children (tend to be happy, regular in sleep and eating, adaptable, not easily upset)
40

easy
___% are _____ children (less happy, less regular in eating and sleeping, slower in adapting to change)
15

slow-to-warm-up
____ % are ____ children (glum. erratic in sleep and eating, resistant to change, relatively irritable)
10

difficult
The remaining __% showed a mixture of these 3 temperaments
35
Fairly strong temperament correlation at age _____ and _____.
3 months

10 years
_____ refers to the close, emotional bonds of affection that develope between infants and their caregivers
attachments
First manifestations of ______ (emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment) occur at 6 to 8 months
separation anxiety
___% of all children develope ____ attachment style (do sisplay sep. anxiety, fairly easily comforted)
70

secure
___ % develope _____ attachment style (huge levels of distress when caregiver leaves--positivity; when caregiver returns, not easily comforted, sometimes pushes away -- negativity)
20

anxious-ambivalent
10 % develope _____ attachment sytle (lack of attachment)
avoidant
A ____ attachment fosters self-esteem, persistence, curiosity, and self-reliance, among other desirable trais.
secure
A ____ is a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established.
stage
Stage theories assume that individuals must progress through a eries of specified stages in a paricular order and that development is marked by major______.
discontinuities
_____'s theory of personality development or stage theory proposes that individuals eveolve through 8 stages over the life span.
Erikson
In each stage the person wrestles with 2 opposing tendencies evoked by the stage's ______.
psychosocial crisis
Stage 1 (birth to age 1)
Trust vs. Mistrust

Is my world supportive and predictable?
Stage 2 (2 to 3)
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Can i do things myself or must i always rely on others?
Stage 3 (3-6 years)
Initiative vs. guilt

Am I good or bad?
Stage 4 (age 6 to puberty)
Industry vs. Inferiority

Am I compentent or worthless?
Stage 5 (adolescense)
Indentity vs. Confusion

Who am I and where am i going?
Stage 6 (early adulthood)
Intimacy vs. Isolation

Shall I share my life with another or live alone?
Stage 7 (Middle adulthood)
Generativity vs. Self-absorbtion

Concern for future genreations; Will i produce something of real value?
Stage 8 (Late adulthood)
Integrity vs. despair

Have i lived a full life?
______ refers to transitions in youngster's patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving.
cognitive devlpmnt
_____'s stage theory of development proposed that children's thought processes go through a series of 4 major stages
Piaget
The _____ stage (birth to 2) involves the coordination of sensory input and motor reponses.
sensorimotor
The key advance during the sensori motor period is the child's grasp on the concept of _____ (when a child recongnizes that an object exists even when out of sight)
object permanence
The _____ period (2 to 7 years) is marked by certain deficenices in thinking--concentration, irreversibility, and egocentrism.
peroperational
Piaget's term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance.
conservation
_____ is the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem
concentration
____ is the inabilty to envison reversing an action
irreversibility
_____ in thinking is characterized by a limited abilyt to share another person's view point (do u have a sister? your sister have a sister?)
egocentrism
During the _____ period (7 to 11 years), children develope the ability to perform operations on mental represntations, making them capable of conservation and heirarchy classification.
concrete operations
The _____ period (11+) involves mastery over abstract concepts.
formal operational
Kohlberg's stage theory

At the ____ level, children think in terms of external authority.
preconventional

Stage 1- Punishment orientation
Stage 2 - Naive Reward oreintation
Kohlberg's stage theory

Older children at the _____ level see rules as necessary for maintaining social order.
conventional

Stage 3 - Good boy/good girl orientation
Satge 4 - Authority oreintation (society's rules follwed rigidly)
Kohlberg's stage theory

The ____ level involves working out a personal code of ethics.
postconventional

Stage 5 - Social contract orientation (society's rule viewed as fallible)
Stage 6- Individual principles and conscience orientation (abstract ethichal principles--equity and justice)
____ is the unquestioning adopiton of parental or societal values
forclosure
_____ is the active struggle for a sense of identity
moratorium
_____ is the absence of struggle for identiy, with no obvious concern about it.
Identity diffusion
______ is the successful achievement of a sense of identity
identity achievement
____ is a person's notion of a devlpmental schedule that specifies what he should have accomplished by certain points in life.
social clock