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12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
6 foundations of scientific knowledge
Systematic Empiricism
Public Verification
free of emotion, etc. judgements based on measurment of observable phenomena. goal not to make ppl feel secure. need in therapy.
limitations: behaviorists/mind (DSM focuses only on beh, nothing about mind), humanists focus on person-centered therapy.
new ideas w/ past, logically supported. new theory must account for previously accepted ideas. promotes forward-moving understanding
no perfect exp and cannot test everythign at once. each exp. rules out some alternatives. many things can alter results. confirmed predictions go on for further testing. confidence increases when different ppl find similar things. stop investigating only when theory recieves overwhelming support. need to value differing evidence
Systematic Empircism
identify specific conditions in which something is true.
systematic: answer particular questions objectivly/thoroughly, rule out alternative explanations
empirical: rely on observation
Pretest-posttest design
control/exp group design
pretest-posttest exp. design
capable of being verified or falsified.
claims must be publicly and objectivly testable. must make claims about observable events before it happens(not after the fact).
Limitations: more specific hypothesis, hard it is to predict. limits questions science can adress
Public Verification
credible knowledge doesnt exist in mind of one person alone.
peer review-share knowledge and debate/discuss.
Can lead to criticism and extension
Cumulative understanding of knowledge
Others can replicate and get simlar results, reduces likelihood that false result stands
Promotes public ownership of results rather than personal
Focuses on truth for humanity sake rather than personal glory.
Why science gradual synthesis and not great leaps?
b/c involves no big ideas, everything comes from past ideas. small ideas include theories and hypotheses (can be everyday, guesses/hunches, or scientific and made from conceptual models)
2 ways objective measurement can promote science
1.objectivity and falsifiability: predictions can be formed in terms of measurments; easier to see if predictions will later be supported from results

2.objectivity and public verification: communication of results in standardized units; easier to try and replicate
Operational definitions, why important?
=(functional definition) defines concepts as observable and measureable events

1.put ideas from conceptual level to concrete level

2.many concepts are complex constructs so we can break up into many sub-concepts that will all link back to an operational def.
Validity? reliability?
Validity= how well a testing tool measures what it is supposed to measure

Reliability=how consistent the testing tool measures the same thing (consisten results)

MUST be reliable to be valid; have to same thing every time and must be right thing.
(can be reliable but not valid)
why do operational def. limit scope of science?
cannot answer the "ultimate questions" like why are we here?