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8 Cards in this Set

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Milgram- Ethical? 3 reasons
1.showed lack of concern/ indifference for well-being of his participants, who were obv. under much distress
2.setting of lab was not appropriate for exp. b/c subjects were in an enviorment that made them prone to behave obediantly and put trust in researcher
3.levels of psy. distress exceed the appropriate limits and they experienced long-term negative psy. consequences
Animal research- ethical? 2 reasons
1. notion that animals are absolutely different from humans (which is y ppl consider it justifiable)=wrong. animals are unjustifiably subjected to harmful procedures and can be considered discriminatino again them (speciesism)
2. many of the exp. are conducted for insignficant reaons and researchers are trained to ignore the sufferin g they put the animals thru
Informed consent? what is it and why important
given adequate explanation of program goals, costs/fees/service, limitations, risks, expected benefits, alternative options, contact person.
Aware: they can quit at any time, consequences of quitting (insurance), and privacy of identity issures.
Emotional objectivity so important b/c?
to avoid dual relationships (therapist,instructor, supervisor, researcher, friend)
boundary violations: if the helper exploits the client, he is putting personal gain first.
3 reasons we need to do science
1. noble reasons of collecting info and discovering new things to explain unknown or overturn previous accepted idea.
2. societal benefits and understand the planet better; improve lives and lead us to new benefical findings. understand who we are and our place in world
3.economical advances and to find more efficient and more effective ways to find resources, create new chemicals, and develop new phenomena
5 characteristics of scientific attitude
Open-minded=not jump to conclusions, may not be enough evidence to make a conclusion.
Objective=identify biases and assumptions and avoid them, along w/ generalizations and stereotypes. avoid using emotional reasons/opinions as facts
Questioning= even about ideas we accdept by ppl we like; sometimes only way to learn error
Don't Oversimplify= thought/beh is complex, causes and multi-faceted. often more than 1 right answer, correct answers may be limited to particular situations
Open to Error= recognize that errors are vulnerable part of the process; admit mistakes w/out blame. try to prove yourself wrong
4 goals scientists have
1.Describe (name and classify observable/measurable beh)
2.Understand relatinships (are 2 or more things related? how?)
3.Explain causes (equity and spillover)
4.Predict beh accurately (if we..then..)
what is science?
A way of discovering truth about the world that is based on the gradual synthesis of information. This info. is found through a systematic way of observation and thinking.