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54 Cards in this Set

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What are advantages to having a body cavity?
1)a straight through gut can be specialized along its length for different functions

2)allows the gut and body wall to move independantly of eachother

3)it takes much less energy to maintain a fluidfilled space than it does to maintain a cell filled space(ie:flatworms)

4)body cavity is important in osmoregulation.

5)fluid filled body cavity provides a space which can be occupied by internal organs of mesodermal and sometimes of endodermal origin

6)body cavity serves as a permanent hydroskeleton. Saves tons of energy with this
What are 2 types of fluid filled body cavities?
1)Pseudocoelom

2)Coelom
What is a hemocoel?
-a functional body cavity derived from the circulatory system
What are some characteristics of the Phylum Aschelminthes? 5 of them.
-have a pseudocoelom
-most exhibit a tendency to have a specific number cells making up the entire organism
-pseudocoelom is actually the persistent blastocoel
-mesoderm doesn't touch the gut except at the extreme anterior and posterior ends
-no circulatory system
-body wall is covered by a cuticle
What are some characteristics of Turbatrix aceti?
-belongs to the Phylum Nematoda
-AKA vinegar eelworm
-anterior end is blunt
-posterior end is pointed
-movement is undulating/sigmoidal
What's the function of a cuticle on pseudocoleomates?
-allows the pseudocoelom to exert lots of pressure
-is important in the movement of nematodes because the stretched cuticle on the extended side of the body tends to return the body towards the midline
-accounts for the perfectly cylindrical shape of nematodes
Whats the purpose to undulated movement?
-movement but is rather inefficient because lots of lateral movement
-more important in stirring up the liquid medium in which nematodes live for feeding purposes
What is a true bulb?
-a pharangeal bulb with a valve
Where would you find Periplaneta?
-in the digestive tract of cockroaches
Go over the life cycle of Periplaneta
-eggs originate in the ovary
-they migrate into the proximal growth zone where they differentiate and enlarge into OOCYTES
-oocytes pass into a short Ushaped oviduct where the eggs are fertilized
-fertilized eggs pass into the uterus, where they develope
-partially developed eggs(4 cells) are then expelled out throught the VULVA by an ovejector
-divisions continue for the next 4 days until the eggs are mature
-if ingested by a cockroach, eggs release larva
-larva lives in the gut
-larva grows into an adult worm by undregoing several molts in 2 weeks
Where would you find the nematode parasite Ancylostoma duodenale?
-found in the intestine of humans
What is the function of buccal capsules on ancylostoma?
-is used to hold onto the intestinal wall while sucking up nutrients from the host
What are some symptoms of hookworm disease?
-anemia
-muscle weakness
-skin pallor
-general lassitude
Go over the life cycle of Ancylostoma. 7 steps
1)human contacts larva infected soil. Larvae penetrate the skin

2)migrates in the blood vessels and circulate to various parts of the body

3)reaches the lung and enters the air spaces

4)migrate up the trachea and enter the throat region

5)they are swallowed down, thus arriving at the intestine

6)as female lies attached to the intestinal wall, she lets loose 1000's of eggs which are eliminated from the host in the feces

7)larvae develope from the eggs lying in the soil
What is the function of the bursa in Anclyostoma caninum?
-found only in male strongyloid nematodes
-during mating, the male clamps the bursa over the reproductive opening of the female
-inserts his copulatory spicules into the female
Where would you find Ascaris lumbricoides?
-in the intestines of humans

**causes the disease called ascariasis**
How can you tell the difference between a male ascaris and a female ascaris?
-females are straight throughout their length
-posterior end of males are curved into a hook

**Genital pore is located about 1/3 of the way down from the anterior end**
What are some properties of the digestive system of ascaris?
-the gut is without muscles throughout most of it's length
-food is forced down by pharynx
-gut has a thin external layer of cuticle, and a single layer of coolumnar cells with nuclei arranged in a symmetrical circle
-has microvilli on the inner surface of the columnar cells
What is the function of copulatory spicules?
-part of the male ascaris's reproductive system
-used to pry open the female genital opening during copulation
-sperm is then released from the seminal vesicle into the males cloaca and pass into the female through her genital opening
Go over the life cycle of Ascaris.
1)the female in the hosts intestines lay about 200,000 eggs/day. Eggs get passed through feces

2)Eggs are released in a stage of early cleavage

3)egg becomes fully embryonated with an infective larva that moulted once in the egg. Takes about 2 weeks

4)if eggs are ingested, the eggs hatch in the intestine, releasing the larvae

5)larvae move out of gut and into circulatory system where they eventually reach the lungs

6)they become lodged in the walls of the air sacs where they grow for a period

7)the worms then migrate up the trachea and into the throat where they are swallowed

8)reaches intestine and cycle repeats
Where would you find Trichinella spiralis?
-found embedded in the mucosa of human's intestine

-cause of trichinosis
Go over the life cycle of Trichinella spiralis.
1)eggs hatch within the uterus and larvae leave through the female genital pore

2)bust through the gut and enter lymph and blood vessles

3)eventually encyst in the voluntary muscles of the body

4)Basic flow of infection: rats->pigs->humans
What are some symptoms of trichinosis?
-diarrhea
-pain
-nausea
-inflammatory reactions in voluntary -muscles
-anemia
-skin eruption
-pneumonia
-death
What is the cause of Elephantitis?
-Wuchereria bancrofti nematodes block lymphatic system, causing huge fluid back up and extreme swelling
Go over the life cycle of Wuchereria bancrofti.
-adults living in the lymph system release larvae called MICROFILARIAE
-microfilariae enter the circulatory system
-mosquitoes take it up when they feed
-microfilariae develope in the mosquito
-mosquito infects new host with next meal
Where would you find Meloidogyne?
-found in the roots of vegetables, fruit and ornamental plants

-AKA root knot nematode because causes galls to be produced on the root by inducing abnormal cell division which is stimulated by the nematodes saliva
Go over the life cycle of Meloidogyne.
-saliva causes galls on root
-meloidogyne eats the cells of the galls
-the female gets fat and becomes an egg laying machine
-eggs are dispersed, hatching into miniature nematodes which live freely in the soil
-finds a root, pokes it with a small spear and cycle repeats
What problems do parasitic nematodes share with other parasites?
1)how to protect themselves from the hosts defensive mechanisms

2)how to transmit themselves from one host to the next
What are some characterisitics to the Phylum Rotifera?
-very small metazoans
-lives in moist-terristrial or aqueous environments
-there are creeping, swimming pelagic and sessile forms
-has a head, trunk, tail/foot, cuticle/loricae, eyes, antenna
What are the functions of corona
for the Phylum Rotifera?
-the ciliated headlike region
-creates a current which helps gather food
What are the functions of Mastax
for the Phylum Rotifera?
-doubles up as the pharynx and the Jaws. Chews prey then forces the food down through the gut
What are the functions of the foot
for the Phylum Rotifera?
-has tapering toes which help in attachment
What are the functions of Germovitellarium
for the Phylum Rotifera?
-it's an ovary combined with a yolk gland
How do copulation occur with Rotifera?
-copulation involves the hypodermic injection of sperm through the body wall of the female
-or, sperm may be injected into the female's cloaca
What's the difference between a Mictic and Amictic female Rotifera?
Amictic:
-occurs in spring and early summer
-produces thinshelled diploid eggs that hatch in a few days releasing new females

Mictic:
-produce haploid eggs by meiosis which develope into males
-males than get it on with females to produce fertilized eggs with thick shells that help it survive the winter
Define parthenogenic
-species that have completely dispensed with males

-developement of unfertilized eggs
What are the characteristics of the Phylum Gastrotricia?
-live in interstitial spaces of bottom sediments
-don't have a corona or mastax
-cuticle is often structured
-glides on ventral cilia
-has a jawless pharaynx, intestines and anus
-has a protonephridial system
-hermaphroditic
What are some characteristics to the Phylum Gordiacea?
-AKA Nematomorpha
-look like horse hair
-found in horse trophs
-tie thmselves in knots
-anterior end is rounded
-covered with warts and bristles
-posterior end consists of 2-3 lobes
-short life span
-can live anywhere but can only develope in a few places
What are some characteristics of the Phylum Kinorhyncha?
-slightly larger than rotires or gastrotrichs
-all marine animals
-no external cilia
-covered in spines
-can retract head
-lives in the mud and eats it
-moves by extending and retracting its head
What are some characteristics of the Phylum Acanthocephala?
-endoparasites
-needs 2 hosts to complete it's life cycle
1)larvae in crustaceans and insects
2)adults live in digestive tracts of vertebrates

-lacks a digestive system
What are 3 main characteristics of pseudocoelomates?
1)relatively small animals

2)their relatively simple body structure

3)limited use of muscle for movement
What is a coelom?
-a body cavity completely surrounded by mesodermal tissue
What are some advantages of having a coelom?
-allows for bigger size
-allows for complex movement and structure
-allows for circulatory system
-better digestion
-independant body movement
Draw and label Turbatrix aceti.
Did you get:
-mouth
-pharynx (true bulb)
-pseudocoel
-intestine
-reproductive system...(just label it)
-genital pore
-anus
Draw and label a cockroach nematode. Do a digestive tract and a reproductive tract.
Did you get:
-mouth corpus
-isthms
-bulb
-intestine
-anus
-growth zone of ovary
-uterus
-germinal zone of ovary
-vulva
-oviduct
Draw and label a male and female Ancylostoma caninum.
Did you get:
-Bursa(for males)
-pharynx(no bulb)
-ventral excretory pore
-oesaphagus
-coils of ovaries
-anterior uterus
-vulva
-vagina
-posterior uterus
-anus
-pointed tail
-intestine
-cephalic glands
-excretory glands
-buccal cavity
-ventral teeth
Draw the entire male and female Ascaris in side view
Did you remember:
-pointy anterior
-blunt posterior
-hook on male
Draw and label the reproductive system of a female ascaris.
Did you get:
-mouth
-midgut
-position of female genital opening
-vagina
-coils of oviduct and ovary
-position of anus
-displaced midgut
-uteri
Draw and label the reproductive system of a male ascaris
Did you get:
-coils of vas deferense and testis
-vas deferense
-seminla vesicle
-pouches for copulatory spicules
-position of cloacal opening
-ejaculatory duct
Draw and label a cross section of an ascaris female
Did you get:
-dorsal cord
-dorsal nerve
-uterus
-intestine
-cuticle
-lumen
-lateral canal
-excretory canal
-ventral nerve
-ventral chord
-muscle cell
-lumen
-oviduct
-contractile muscle sheath
-pseudocoel
-hypodermis
-muscle cell
-rachis
-germinal cell
-ovary
-egg
-sperm(triangular shape, amoeboid movement)
Draw the different body shapes that a female meloidogyne takes
Did you remember:
-she gets really fat as she gets older
Draw and label Rotifer citrinus
Did you get:
-corona
-mastax jaws
-stomach
-intestine
-anus
-pedal glands
-foot
-toes
Draw and label Gastrotrichia, Nematomorpha, Kinorhyncha and Acanthocephala.
*Don't worry too much about these goofy bastards. If you got'em, great. If not, don't waste valuable brain juice... This is my last card! I'm gonna drink a beer!*
Draw and label a cross section of a coelomate.
Did you remember:
-epidermis
-muscle layer
-peritoneum
-coelom
-mesentery