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40 Cards in this Set

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memory
the process by which we observe, store and recall info / visual auditory and tactile
encoding
converting external sensory info into a code / acoustic, visual, semantic
level of processing - 3
degree to which info is elaborated, reflected and processed

1) phonemic processing - focusing on characteristics of language

2)shallow processing - focusing on physical charactersitics of the stimulus ex: recognition/patterns/repeition

3) deep processing - focusing on meaning of stimulus ex: he meet a _____ on the street
enhancing encoding
linking a stimulus to other info at time of encoding
visual imagery
creation of visual images to represent the stimuli to be remembered ex: bicycles; abstract thoughts more difficult than concrete words
dual-coding theory
memory is enhaced by forming semantic or visual codes / ex: 2 memory codes are better than 1
self-referent encoding
making the material personally relevant and meaningful
storage
maintain in memory / episodic, procedural, semantic / actualy chemical changes in brain / hippocampus
lobes - 4
diff parts of lobes:
1) frontal - motor

2) parietal - perceptual

3) occpipital - visual

4) temporal - auditory
retrieval
recover from memory / recall, recognition / ease of retrieval depends on how info was encoded / more effort in encoding = more effectively retrieved
memory measurement - 2
1) recall - info must be reproduced ex: capitol of kenya

2) recognition - correct info is seleved from several options ex: multiple choice
sensory registers
holds info about a preceived stimulus for a fraction of a sec after stimulus dissapears / helps experiance constant flow of info / hold info long enough to be processed further / very high capacity
types of storage - 3
1) iconic - visual sensory registration

2) echoic - momentary memory for sound

3) selective attention - mental resources are focused only on part of stimuli around us
short term memory
stores small amount of info in consciousness / up to 30 sec
working memory
allows us to manipulate/work memory held in short term memory / solve problems / respond to enviormental demands/ working memory is active memory
limited capacity
memory span 7(+-)2 / limited duration: 20 sec w/out rehearsal
chunking
combining smaller units of info into larger ones
central executive
responsible for balancing out info in working memory
long term memory
facts, images, thoughts, feelings, skills and experiances may reside for a lifetime / unlimtited / retrieval depends on how deeply info was coded
serial position effect
tedency to remember info toward beginning and end of list than in the middle
primacy effect
when words at the beginning of a list are better remembered - reflects LTM
recency effect
when words at the end of a list are better remembered - reflects STM
types of long term memory - 2
1) declarative
2) porcedural
declaraitive memory
facts and events

1)semantic - generalized facts and knowledge

2) episodic - memories of particular events
procedural memory
"how to" knowledge of procedures

ex: riding a bike
explicit memory - 2
memories that you can consciously recall

1) recall - spontaneous conscious recollection of material from LTM (ex: 7 dwarves)

2) recognition - something currently perceived has been previously encountered or learned (ex: multi choice exams)
implicit memory
expressed in behavior but does not require conscious recollection / skills / associated memory / ex: tying shoelace
priming effects
where prior exposure to a stimulus facilitates or inhibits the processing of new info

ex: group of poeple deny seeing a word before but can fill in blanks
forgetting
inability to recall learned info
ebbinghaus
documented the rate of forgetting of info - initial rate of forgetting is high & then trails off
why do we forget? - 2
1) encoding failure

2) memory decay
encoding failure
STM did not enter long term memory / extra effort must be made from STM to LTM

1) rehearsing - shallow

2) semantic - deep
memory decay
fading memory trace / gradually fade even if properly encoded / more likely interference from new memories

ex: tip of the tongue phenomenom
retrieval failure - 3
memory trace is present in LTM but cannot be retrieved
1) inadequte cues
2) lack of encoding context (setting)
3) interference
interference theory - 2
intrustion of similar memories on one another / ex: 2 paths look alike / dominant theory in psych

1) retroactive - when new info intereferes w/old info

2) proactive - when previously stored info intereferes w/new info
flashbulb memories
vivid memories of exciting or highly consequential events

ex: 9/11 - who, what, where, when how
seven sins of memory - 7
1) memories are transient (fade w/time)

2) we do not remember what we do not pay attention to

3) our memories can be temp blocked

4) we can misattribute source of memory

5) we are suggestible in our memories

6) we can show memory distortion (bias)

7) we often fail to forget things we would like not to remember (persistance of memory)
amnesia - 2
1) retrograde - loss of memories for events that occur prior to onset

2) anterograde - loss of memories for events that occur after onset
prospective memory
remembering to perform actions in future / factors influence success

1) event vs. time
2) habitual vs. infrequent
retrospective memory
remembering events from past of previously learned info / ex: what is name of 1st grade teacher