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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
we can remove impediments to problem-solving, such as mental set and finctional fixedness
what can we do to solve problems more efficiently?
confirmation bias
leads ppl to discount evidence that contradicts their prior beliefs and expectations
representativeness heuristic
leads ppl to make more of a given sample of data then they should
availablity heuristic
leads ppl to make snap decisions based on whatever info comes most readily to mind
leads ppl to base decisions on how a problem is phrased rather than on the facts at hand
the cognitive processes involved in creative thinking include the use of metaphor and analogy, conceptual combination, and conceptual expansion
what cognitive processes underlie creative thinking?
psychologists generally define ______ as the mental representation and manipulation of info
superordinate concept
broadest mental category in a three-level conceptual heirarchy
basic-level concept
mental category most often used when identifying objects
logical concept
mental category with clearly defined rules for membership
natural concept
mental category w/ poorly defined rules for membership
functional fixedness
one mental roadblock to problem-solving is the inability to see how a familiar object can be used in new ways. this impediment is known as...
analogy, algorithm
a ____ is a problem-solving strategy that draws on past experience w/ similar problems, whereas a ______ is a set of step-by-step rules for solving problems.
conceptual combination
merging 2 or more concepts to produce novel ideas or applications
-phonemes: basic units of sound
-morphemes: basic untis of meaning
-syntax: the rules of grammar that determine how words are ordered in sentences and phrases to express meaning
-semantics: the set of rules governing the meaning of words
what are the major components of language?
-according to Noam Chomsky, language development depends on an innate mechanism that is "prewired" in the human brain
-language development aslo depends on exposure to the speech others. thus, both nature and nurture are necessary
how does language develop?
in its original form, this hypothesis holds that language determines how we think and how we perceive the world. research findings fail to support this version of the hypothesis, but a weaker version, which holds that culture and language influence thinking, has some merit
what is the linguistic relativity hypothesis?
-scholars continue to debate the question of whether animals other than humans can use language. the answer may hinge on how we define language.
-research w/ chimps and gorillazs has shown that these primates are capable of learning elementary forms of communication--for example, manipulation of symbols to request food--but questions remain about whether these communication skills are quivalent to human language
can nonhuman animals use language?
the set of rules governing the proper use of words, phrases and sentences
the basic units of sounds in a language
linguistic relativity hypothesis
the belief that language determines how we think and perceieve the reality
some ppl believe that chimps and gorillas can use language b/c they have been able to manipulate _____
the capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively w/ the environment
-Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
-Wechsler Scale
*both theses scales compute IQ on the basis of the deviation of a person's test score from the norms for the person's age group
what standardized intelligence tests are generally used to measure intelligence?
-standardization: generation of norms based on samples representative of the population
-reliability: stability of test scores over time
-validity: the test's ability to measure what it purports to measure
what are the basic requirements of a good intelligence test?
intelligence tests are misued when children w/ low scores are labeled as innately incapable or inferior, when too much emphasis is place on IQ scores, and when cultural biases in the tests put children from diverse cultural backgrounds @ a disadvantage
what are some examples of the misuse of intelligence tests?
-Spearman's concept of general intelligence or "g"
-Thurstone's theory of primary mental abilities
-Gardner's model of multiple intelligences
-Sternberg's triarchic theory
*some theorists favor the view that intelligence consists of a general cognitive ability, while others favor a model based on multiple abilities or even multiple intelligences
what are some of the major theories of intelligence?
Binet, Simon
the first modern intelligence test was developed by Alfred ___ and Theodore ___
a test's ability to measure what it is designed to measure