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27 Cards in this Set

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What are the [[GOALS OF RESEARCH/SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY]]?
RESEARCH aims at finding out:
1. DESCRIPTION (what happens)
2. PREDICTION (when it happens)
3. CAUSAL CONTROL (what causes it to happen)
4. EXPLANATION (why it happens)
Name some [[METHOD OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH]]?
1. OBSERVATIONAL
2. SELF-REPORT
3. CORRELATIONAL
4. EXPERIMENTAL
What does[[OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH]] entail?
[[OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH]] involves watching and noting behavior in order to provide a systematic and objective analysis
What are the <<BENEFITS>> and <<DRAWBACKS>> of [[OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH]]?
1. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY can be done in natural habitat where subject is more likely to act naturally. Additionally it provides us insights for later testing.
2. On the other hand, the environment is uncontrolled and subject can alter their behavior if they notice they are being watched. Additionally, it can be an invasion of privacy.
What occurs in [[SELF-REPORTING]] and what does the data tell us?
People can report their behaviors through [[SURVEYS]] or in [[INTERVIEWS]]. Surveys lets us [learn about people's attitude and opinions] and [DEMOGRAPHIC]. INTERVIEWS allows for follow ups and clarification from the general questions in surveys.
What are the <<BENEFITS>> and <<DRAWBACKS>> of [[SELF-REPORTING]]?
Surveys tend to be fast and easy to administer. You can gather a lot of data quickly. On the other hand, sampling can be biased and there is no way to verify the accuracy of the information and people aren't always able to report accurately about themselves.
What is a [[CORRELATIONAL STUDY]]?
CORRELATIONAL STUDIES investigates whether two or more variables of interest are meaningfully related. Correlational ranges from -1 to +1 and are represented by the letter r (the correlation coefficient). Note that the experimenter doesn't manipulate the data.
How do we interpret the [[CORRELATION COEFFICIENT]]?
The [[CORRELATION COEFFICIENT]] is an indication of your ability to predict someone's standing on one variable if you know their standing on the other variable. It ranges from -1 to +1. The closer to one the stronger the correlation. The sign tells us the direction of correlation. 1 is a [[PERFECT CORRELATION]], which enables you to predict the performance or behavior with perfect accuracy.
Does [[CORRELATION]] prove [[CAUSATION]]? Why or why not?
CORRELATION DOES NOT PROVE CAUSATION. Why? Because there may be a third variable that affect both of the correlated variables. <EXAMPLE> As ice cream sales goes up, new intake of prisoners goes up. Does this mean that ice cream makes people goes to jail?
What are the <BENEFITS> and <DRAWBACKS> of CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH?
CORRELATIONAL STUDIES allows us to study the relationship that occur naturally and can provide the impetus for future experimental research. The DRAWBACKS is the existence of a third variable (spurious) correlations, and it doesn't prove causation.
What are the goals of [[EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH]]?
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH tries to establish causal relationship through the use of the scientific method.
What is the difference between the INDEPENDENT VARIABLE or the DEPENDENT VARIABLE?
The INDEPENDENT VARIABLE is the thing we manipulate while the DEPENDENT VARIABLE is the thing we are measuring. The difference is that the DEPENDENT VARIABLES are thought to be caused by the INDEPENDENT VARIABLE.
What can complicates experimental research?
the existence of a confound
Define [[CONFOUND]].
A CONFOUND is anything affecting a dependent variable that may unintentionally influence the measure
What does the [[SCIENTIFIC METHOD]] entails?
1. initial OBSERVATIONS THEORY
2. FORMULATE HYPOTHESIS (null/alternative hypothesis)
3. DESIGN STUDY
4. COLLECT THE DATA
5. ANALYZE DATA
6. DISSEMINATE THE RESULT
Define HYPOTHESIS.
A HYPOTHESIS is specific prediction of what should be observed if the theory under consideration is correct. It must be falsifiable.
What is an OPERATIONAL DEFINITION?
An OPERATIONAL DEFINITION quantifies a vrible in order to measure it.
How do we decide who partipates in the study and why?
1. RANDOM SAMPLING from REPRESENTATIVE POPULATIONS
2. RANDOM ASSIGNMENT TO CONDITIONS OR TREATMENT
-
We do RANDOM assignment or sampling in an effort to control or minimize extraneous/irrelevant factors.
What kind of data can we collect in our EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH?
1. BEHAVIORAL DATA
2. PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA
3. SELF-REPORT DATA
WHO can be ask to participate in EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH? WHY?
1. COLLEGE STUDENTS
2. ANIMALS ( more control
3. PROTECTED GROUPS
What are the BENEFITS and DRAWBACKS of groups available for research?
1. With COLLEGE STUDENTS, there are many and they're easily available. However, the criteria of college students are very general and their information is used to apply for the rest of the population that shares similar characteristic.
2. We can manipulate ANIMALS' environment. They have shorter lifespan so we can perform life time studies and we can do things we simplyh can't do with people. The drawback is also their GENERALIZABILITY.
What are the tenets of GOOD DATA in EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH?
First GOOD DATA is VALID (addresses research hypothesis in the way intended), ACCURATE (free from error), and RELIABLE (measures are stable and consistent over time in similar conditions).
What are the different type of statistics?
1. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS provide an overall sense of what the data is like
2. INFERENTIAL STATISTICS allo us to identify whether differences actually exist between different sets of numbers
How are statistical principles used to analyze data collected in EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH?
1. P VALUE - likelihood that the result you obtained are due to chance (typical in psych is p<.05 meaning that the likelihood due to chance is less than 5%)
What type of statistical tests are available for use in EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH?
1. T-TEST (compare 2 groups)
2. ANOVA (compare 2+ groups)
3. CHI SQUARE (compare frequency data
What are the BENEFITS and DRAWBACKS of EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH?
1. The BENEFITS of EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH is that we can control the environment and the study allows us to make causal statements.
2. The DRAWBACKS is that the controlled statement are restricted in relating to true life, can be very time consuming, and costly.
What is the IRB and why do they exist?
The IRB exists to ensure the ethics of research study. It started with the questionable Tuskeege Study.