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29 Cards in this Set

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Who was RENE DESCARTES and what was his CONTRIBUTION TO PSYCHOLOGY?
RENE DESCARTES was a philosophy who promoted "DUALISM" - the idea in which the mind and body are separate but intertwined. The mind could affect the body, but the body could also affect the mind. Currently this "soul" is believed to be the activity carried out by the PINEAL GLAND.
Who is FRANZ JOSEPH GALL and what was his CONTRIBUTION TO PSYCHOLOGY?
FRANZ JOEPH GALL believed that different brain regions have different functions; that there is a LOCALIZATION OF FUNCTION. There are current data from brain imaging research that support this theory. However, he believed in phrenology.
What is PHRENOLOGY?
PHRENOLOGY is the reading of bump on the skull of the different region of the brain. Fortunately, there i no basis to phrenology.
Who is KARL SPENCER LASHLEY and what is his CONTRIBUTION TO PSYCHOLOGY?
KARL SPENCER LASHLEY disputed GALL's idea and advocated EQUIPOTENTIALITY and the DISTRIBUTION OF FUNCTION. He conducted studies on rats by producing lesion in their brain and concluded that is was the total amount of damage that was important. He was very influental and received a lot of support because he had data to support his studies. However, he was partially wrong.
What is the principle of EQUIPOTENTIALITY?
EQUIPOTENTIALITY states that all parts of the cortex contribute equally to mental ability.
Who is WILBER PENFIELD and what is his CONTRIBUTION TO PSYCHOLOGY?
WILBER PENFIELD is an early "neuroscientist" who treated epilepsy patients. By stimulating different brain areas looking for the epicenter of seizure and ended up mapping the entire sensory motor cortex.
What is the CURRENT REVOLUTION in psychological energizing research?
1. BRAIN CHEMISTRY (neurotransmitter)
2. THE HUMAN GENOME
3. WATCHING THE WORKING BRAIN (MRI, PET scan)
What are the TWO DIVISION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM?
1. SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
2. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
What does the SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM affect?
1. SENSORY NEURONS (AFFERENT NEURONS) transmit omatosensory information from peripheral sensory organs to CNS
2. MOTOR NEURONS (EFFERENT NEURONS) bring motor informational commands from CNS to the muscles
What are the division of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?
1. SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM is actitivating ("FIGHT OR FLIGHT")
2. PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM is deactivating ("REST AND DIGEST")
What are NEURONS specialized for?
NEURONS are specialized for COMMUNICATION.
Name the 3 DIFFERENT TYPES of NEURONS.
1. SENSORY (AFFERENT) NEURONS
2. MOTOR (EFFERENT) NEURONS
3. INTERNEURONS
What task does the SENSORY (AFFERENT) NEURONS carry out?
The SENSORY (AFFERENT) NEURONS bring information from the sensory organs to the spinal cord and brain.
What task does the MOTOR (EFFERENT) NEURONS carry out?
MOTOR (EFFERENT) NEURONS transmit information from the spinal cord and brain to the periphery thus enabling our response to sensory inputs.
What task does the INTERNEURONS carry out?
INTERNEURONS facilitate within-CNS transmission of information and perform integration and organization functions. They vastly outnumber Motor and
Sensory Neurons (several millions of each
compared to 100 billion interneurons)
What are the different part of the neurons?
1. Information collection occurs at the DENDRITE.
2. Information integration occurs at the CELL BODY.
3. Information transmission occurs at the AXONS and
SYNAPSES.
What is the "NODE OF RANVIER"?
A “node of ranvier” is the SPACE between two myelin sheaths on an axon where depolarization and ACTION POTENTIALS occur.
Define ACTION POTENTIALS.
An ACTION POTENTIALS is the electrical signal that
passes along the axon and causes the release of
chemicals that transmit signals to other neurons. It is the nerve impulse flowing down the axon. Action based on threshold potential (it fires or it doesn’t – there is no in between)
Name the different TYPES of NEURONAL SIGNALS.
1. EXCITATORY (stimulate the neuron to fire)
2. INHIBITORY (reduce the likelihood of firing)
What kind of changes lead to an ACTION POTENTIAL?
Change in ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL lead to action. 2 types:
1. Depolarization – change in the permeability of
the cell membrane. Sodium rushes in.
2. Hyperpolarization – membrane becomes even
more resistant to sodium.
Name two subcategory of NEUROTRANSMITTER.
1. AGONIST: enhance the action
of a specific neurotransmitter
2. ANTAGONIST: inhibit the action of a specific neurotransmitter
How do AGONIST work?
1. increasing the synthesis of neurotransmitters
2. increasing the release of a neurotransmitter
3. binding to receptors and block inhibitory effects
4. block deactivation / reuptake
5. bind to postsynaptic receptors
How does ANTAGONIST work?
1. block the synthesis of neurotransmitters
2. block the release of neurotransmitters
3. activate receptors that inhibit the neurotransmitter release
4. destroy a neurotransmitter
5. blocking by binding to postsynaptic receptors
What is the FUNCTION of the BRAINSTEM?
The BRAINSTEM houses our BASIC SURVIVAL PROGRAMS such as BREATHING, SWALLOWING, URINATION.
What is the FUNCTION of the CEREBELLUM?
The CEREBELLUM is aka the "little brain." It is responsible for Motor learning and function such as riding a bike. fMRI have identified it as the center for Cognitive processes, such as decision making, memory, and empathy.
What are the different division of the brain and what function are they responsible for?
1. FRONTAL LOBE (thought, planning movement)
2. PARIETAL LOBE ( touch, spatial relations)
3. OCCIPITAL LOBE (Vision)
4. TEMPORAL LOBE (hearing, memory)
Name some KEY SUBCORTICAL STRUCTURES.
1. HIPPOCAMPUS
2. AMYGDALA
3. HYPOTHALAMUS
4. THALAMUS
What are the two hemisphere of the brain responsible for?
1. Left - verbal
2. Right - spatial
3. lateralization - specialized skills
Define BRAIN PLASTICITY.
PLASTICITY is a property of the brain that allows it to change as a result of experience,drugs,
or injury. The brain can recover bet in critical periods, in injuries, and through experience.