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55 Cards in this Set

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The ones from the lateral geniculate extend directly to primary visual cortex.
is the part of the retina with the greatest perception of detail.
Optic Nerve
conveys visual information to the brain, is composed of axons from ganglion cells
Cones of the retina
are more sensitive to detail than the rods.
Occipital Lobe
of the cerebral cortex is most important for visual information.
special part of the brain
sensitive just to the recognition of faces.
analogous to a camera
the light sensitive surface in the back of the eye. It would correspond to the 'film' in the camera analogy.
Rod Outer Segment (ROS)
-absorbs light (photons).
-gets almost fully bleached (80%)
-Rods get longer as light gets dimmer.
Seeing Stars
If I were hit on the right side of my head on the top, I would see stars in bottom left visual field
Pituitary Tumor
causes trouble with peripheral vision.
Visual Agnosia
causes someone to mistake something like his wife for a hat.
Opponent process
theory of vision is most like how a computer works.
Convergence, receptors, ganglion cells, fovea...
There is less convergence of the receptors onto the ganglion cells in the fovea.
126 to 1
Average convergence of the receptor cells onto the ganglion
What is there more convergence of...rods or cones?
2 visual pathways
Geniculostriate and tectal-pulvinar
'weak eye' can lead to loss of columns in the visual cortex.
stored as abstract concepts
If stimulating receptor `A’ leads to either excitation or inhibition of a particular neuron in the brain...
then receptor `A’ is part of that neuron's receptive field.
moving from simple to complex to hypercomplex cells...
the stimulus required to make the cell fire becomes increasingly complex.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
made up of the brain and the spinal cord.
made up of the hippocampus, thalamus and cerebral cortex
White parts of brain
caused by a high density of myelinated axons
Each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex...
receives most of its input from the contralateral side of the body and controls the muscles on the contralateral side
central sulcus
separates the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex from the parietal lobe
Eye movements
are controlled by cranial nerves 3, 4, and 6.
the ventricles of the brain
contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
is caused by An obstruction in the flow of cerebrospinal fluid
Sulcus and fissure
both refer to grooves found on the surface of the brain.
the cranial nerves
are involved in the control of breathing, heart rate and other vital reflexes
horizontal plane
A plane that shows brain structures as they would be seen from above
another name for the ventral spinal cord in humans
The Autonomic NS
The division of the nervous system that is made up of neurons that control the heart, intestines, and other organs
The medulla, pons, midbrain, and central structures of the forebrain
Damage to the prefrontal cortex
often causes people to lose their social inhibitions and to ignore the rules of polite conduct
Digestive activity
is INCREASED by the parasympathetic nervous system.
damage to cranial nerves #5, 9, and 10.
chewing and swallowing would most likely be impaired
damage to cranial nerve #9
inability to cough or choke
the vestibular system
most likely to detect movement of the head
hair cells
The receptor cells of the auditory system
odor released by an animal that affects the behavior of other animals
The vomeronasal organ
ids in mating behaviors; doesn’t seem to be present in humans; responds to pheromones and sends information to the amygdala.
different ions and different receptors
for different tastes
There may be receptors for
a taste bud of the tongue
has 50 receptors
many women living in a college dormitory will gradually begin to synchronize their menstrual cycles
Research indicates that this is, at least in part, based on the influence of odors
Gay and straight Men
react differently to sexual odors
Dogs sense of olfaction is better than ours because...
dogs have10 sq inches of epithelium compared to our 1 sq inch and dogs pay more attention to odors.
Damage to the spinothalamic tract
will result in contralateral loss of pain below the lesion.
The homunculus
shows a representation of the body (somewhat distorted) on the cortex
postcentral gyrus
The primary target area on the cerebral cortex for touch and other skin sensations is the postcentral gyrus
The spinothalamic system
is sensitive to pain and temperature.
Damage to the postcentral gyrus in the parietal lobe
would lead to a deficit primarily in sense of touch.