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48 Cards in this Set

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social revolution
the rapid, fundamental, and often violent transformation of state structure, class structure, and dominant ideology, which is accompanied by mass-based revolt from below
3 requirements to fit definition of revolution
existing regime toppled by mass-based rebellion
old state must collapse
new elites must build new state and start from scratch
2 reasons revolution is rare
difficult to sustain a mass uprising
states are robust and do not collapse easily
misery breeds revolt
the more people suffer, the more likely revolution is to occur
leadership theory of revolution
professional revolutionaries take advantage of poverty, dissatisfaction to lead revolutions
(not just about leader; structural conditions matter)
Marxist Theory of Revolution
those classes who are not benefiting challenge the system
inevitable and critical
Relative Deprivation Theory
frustrated expectations for economic conditions leads to revolution
expectations have to have been rising for some time
2 problems with revolution theories
overestimate poor's ability to rebel (collective action problem)
underestimate ability of state to resist rebellion
collective action problem and revolution
participation for individuals has high costs and few benefits (free rider problem must be overcome for revolution)
reason for state power to resist revolution
control coercive apparatus
state-centered approach to social revolution (Skocpol)
combination of state weakness and peasant insurrection makes revolution possible
reasons for vulnerability of agrarian bureaucracies to revolution (Skocpol)
state not autonomous from landowners; cannot weaken their role
cannot tax rich or poor
weak coercive apparatus due to low revenue, military defeat
conditions that make peasant rebellion more likely (Skocpol)
internal solidarity (sustains collective action)
autonomy (live separately from landowners)
problems with Skocpol's structural theory
not very voluntaristic
discounts ideology as solution to collective action problem
multiclass revolutionary coalition and permissive int'l community also needed
3 paths to industrialization
private sector-driven
the difference between industrialization and modernization
modernization includes social and political changes
advanced industrial nations
high GDP
industrialized during 19th century
eliminated basic problems decades ago
majority in middle class
newly or moderately industrial nations
medium GDP
industrialized 1950-2000
citizens not quite as wealthy
middle income nations
some industrialization but uneven
major cities are developed
huge pockets of poverty
low income
very low GDP
lack basic services
not industrialized
majority of countries
Weber's cultural approach to capitalist development in the west
Protestant values (individualism, hard work, etc) made capitalism possible
Modernization theory (Lipset, Ulmand)
countries in the developing world can develop economically and politically in one generation to resemble West
modernization theory ignores 4 things:
cultural differences
historical timing
international economy
relative state power
theory of relative backwardness
when neighbors are developing, there is pressure to develop because of military survival of the fittest but existing inventions (steel, railroad, etc) makes industrialization easier
dependency theory
unequal and exploitative relationship between core and periphery leads to permanent underdevelopment of 3rd world
import substitution industrialization
protecting infant industries by limiting imports
used by NICs until 1960s
NICs and Neoclassical Economic theory
focused on exports like NET recommends but did not focus on comparative adv., rather jumped to heavy industry and was state-led and funded
3 traits of developmental state
autonomous (able to formulate and pursue goals independent of social gropus)
interventionist (plays major role in economy, regulates trade)
business friendly (state intervenes on behalf of business)
why developmental states must be authoritarian (4 reasons)
state officials must be insulated from democratic pressure
policies must be sustained for long periods
wages must be kept low
export oriented industrialization, used in NIC since 1960s
why can't NIC model be generalized?
difficult to create developmental state because
born of very specific historical conditions
- tons of economic and military aid
- U.S. opened markets
- particularly good time to be exporting
Przeworski's empirical study
found that as GDP per capita rises, probability of democracy rises
endogenous explanation for correlation between democracy and GDP
democracy is the final stage of development (very thin empirical support: no magic GDP threshold for democratization)
exogenous explanation for correlation between democracy and GDP
democracy survives because of economic development but develops independently (some empirical support)
cost of dictatorial takeover increases with GNP
wealthy gov'ts do not have to choose between growth and feeding people
how is democracy bad for growth (3 reasons)?
newly enfranchised poor want social programs, undercutting funding for growth
left-wing policies could support short-term consumption instead of long-term growth
politicians will be populist and spend money on increasing wages, benefits
how is democracy good for growth? (4)
democracies are better at constraining leaders (holding them accountable)
better at protecting property rights
dem based on free choice, individual pursuit, capitalist activity
better flow of information prevents economic collapse
what is regime's effect on growth in poor countries?
it makes little difference; nature of poverty leaves no room for development and makes state weak
regime type and growth rates
only dictatorships have ever had growth over 7% or under 1%
democracies have more stable growth and avoid disasters like famine
competitive authoritarianism
a state with formal democratic institutions that are repeatedly violated by its leaders to retain control
partial reforms
reforms in Russia that were intended to promote the free market but the state kept control over the economy
those that controlled businesses in Russia and were very powerful
collective action problem
the high costs and low benefits of participating in a revolution create a free rider problem
relative backwardness
the theory that unmet expectations for development leads to frustration that will eventually cause revolution
dependency and dependent development
an unequal and exploitative relationship between core nations and periphery nations
core and periphery
core - developed countries
periphery - developing countries
state autonomy
the independence of state bureaucracy from the demands of its people that allows developmental states to employ unpopular reforms
developmental state
an authoritarian state that deploys long-term, often unpopular reforms in order to bring about quick development
neoclassical economics
the economic theory that free trade and lack of state intervention is the best path to development