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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What percentage has a psychological disorder?
22%
What are some of the Historical explanations of Abnormal Behaviors?
Demonic possession
Physical diseases
Products of psychological conflicts
Learned maladaptive behaviors
Distorted perceptions of the world
Which is the model that we use to explain abnormal psychology?
The Vulnerability-Stress Model

The idea is the genetic, bio, psychological traits, among other factors make you vulnerable to stresses including economic, environmental, interpersonal, or occupational setbacks
How do we classify abnormality?
The three D's

Distress
Dysfunction
Deviance
DISTRESS
Judgments of abnormality most likely when distress is disproportionately acute or long-lasting
DYSFUNCTION
Either for individual or for society
DEVIANCE
From cultural norms
WHAT IS ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR?
Behavior that is so:
Personally distressful
Personally dysfunctional
Culturally deviant
that others judge it as inappropriate or maladaptive
WHAT TWO CRITERIA DO WE USE TO DIAGNOSE ABNORMAL B.?
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY
VALIDITY
Diagnostic categories should accurately capture essential features of disorders
RELIABILITY
Clinicians should show high levels of agreement in their diagnostic decisions
DSM-IV
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition
Most widely used classification system in U.S.
DSM-IV Axes
Axis I: Primary clinical symptoms
Axis II: Long-standing personality or developmental disorders
Axis III: Relevant physical conditions
Axis IV: Intensity of environmental stressors
Axis V: Coping resources as reflected in recent adaptive functioning
Anxiety Disorder
Frequency and intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion to the situations that trigger them
Anxiety interferes with daily life
Components of Anxiety Responses
Subjective-emotional
Cognitive- constant worry
Physiological
Behavioral
GAD
Chronic state of diffuse, “free-floating” anxiety
Anxiety not attached to specific objects or situations
PANIC DISORDER
Panic occurs suddenly and unpredictably
Much more intense than typical anxiety
Agoraphobia:
Fear of open and public spaces from which escape would be difficult
Social phobias:
Fear of situations in which evaluation might occur
Phobias
Strong and irrational fears of certain objects or situations
Obsessions
Repetitive and unwelcome thoughts, images, or impulses
Compulsions
Repetitive behavioral responses
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Severe anxiety disorder
Can occur in people exposed to extreme trauma
Symptoms of PTSD
Severe symptoms of anxiety, arousal, and distress
Reliving of trauma in flashbacks
Numb to world and avoidance of reminders
Intense “survivor guilt”
Biological Factors in Anxiety
Overreactive autonomic nervous system
Overreactive neurotransmitter systems involved in emotional responses
Overreactive right hemisphere sites involved in emotions
Evolutionary Factors in Anxiety
Biological preparedness

Makes it easier for us to learn to fear certain stimuli
Psychodynamic Theory in Anxiety
Neurotic anxiety

Occurs when unacceptable impulses threaten to overwhelm the ego’s defenses
Cognitive Factors
Maladaptive thought patterns and beliefs
Exaggerated misinterpretations of stimuli
Learned Responses
Result of “emotional conditioning” (Öhman, 2000; Rachman, 1998)
Classically conditioned fear
Observational learning
Somatoform Disorders
Involve physical complaints that suggest a medical problem

But no biological cause
Hypochondriasis
Great alarm about physical symptoms
Convinced of serious illness
Conversion Disorder
Serious neurological disorders suddenly occur
e.g., paralysis, loss of sensation, blindness
Malingering
refers to an individual fabricating or exaggerating the symptoms of mental or physical disorders for a variety of motives
Munchausen’s by proxy
Malingering by proxy

Incidence (Tanaka-Matsumi & Draguns, 1997)

Higher in cultures that:

Discourage open discussion of emotions
Stigmatize psychological disorders
WOMEN
Dissociative Disorders
Breakdown of normal personality integration

Results in alterations to memory or identity
Psychogenic Amnesia
Response to stressful event with extensive but selective memory loss
Psychological Fugue
Loss of all sense of personal identity
Establishment of new identity in a new location
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
Formerly called multiple personality disorder

Two or more separate personalities coexist in the same person
Causes of DID
Trauma-Dissociation Theory

Development of personalities is a response to severe stress
Critics of DID say
Large increase in cases in recent years
Are personalities unintentionally implanted by overzealous therapists?
Major Depression
Intense depressed state
Leaves people unable to function effectively in their lives
Dysthymia
Intense form of depression
Less dramatic effects on personal and occupational functioning
More chronic than major depression
Symptoms of Depression
Negative mood
Cognitive symptoms
Motivational symptoms
Somatic (physical) symptoms
Negative Mood in Depression
Sadness, misery, loneliness

Loss of capacity for psychological, biological pleasures
Cognitive Symptoms of Depression
Difficulty concentrating and making decisions
Low self-esteem
Feelings of inferiority
Blame selves for failures
Pessimism and hopelessness
Motivational Symptoms of Depression
Inability to get started on task
Inability to perform behaviors leading to pleasure or accomplishment
Somatic (Bodily) Symptoms of Depression
Loss of appetite and weight loss in moderate and severe depression
Weight gain in mild depression
Bipolar Disorder
Depression alternates with periods of mania
Mania = Highly excited mood and behavior
Prevalence of Mood Disorders
1 in 20 Americans is severely depressed (Narrow et al., 2002)
1 in 5 Americans will have a depressive episode of clinical proportions during lifetime (Hamilton, 1989)
Gender differences in Mood Disorders
Women are twice as likely to suffer from depression

Why?Female passivity and dependency
Distraction by physical activity and drinking in males
Genetic Factors in Mood Disorders
67% concordance rate for identical twins; only 15% for fraternal twins (Gershon et al., 1989)
Genetic predisposition to mood disorder
Brain Chemistry Factors of Mood Disorders
Underactivity of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin in depression (Davidson, 1998)
Overactivity of neurotransmitters in mania?
Psychological Factors of Mood Disorders
Early traumatic losses or rejections create vulnerability
Humanistic Factors of Mood Disorders
Definition of self-worth in terms of individual attainment
React more strongly to failures; view failures as due to inadequacies
Experience of meaninglessness
Depressive Cognitive Triad
The world
Oneself
The future
Depressive Attribunal Pattern
Attributing success to factors outside self
Attributing negative outcomes to personal factors
Attributing success to factors outside self
Attributing negative outcomes to personal factors
Learned Helplessness Theory of Depression
Depression occurs when people expect that bad events will occur and they think that they can’t cope with them
Environmental Factors of Depression
Poor parenting
Many stressful experiences
Failure to develop good coping skills
Failure to develop positive self-concept
Sociocultural Factors
Prevalence of depressive disorders less in Hong Kong and Taiwan than in the West
Feelings of guilt and inadequacy are highest in North America and Western Europe

Gender difference not found in developing countries
Schizophrenia
Severe disturbances in:

Thinking
Speech
Perception
Emotion
Behavior

fourth leading cause of disability

split mind doesn't mean split from personality, means split from reality
Diagnosis of Schizophrenia
Misinterpretation of reality
Disordered attention, thought, perception
Withdrawal from social activities
Delusions of Grandeur
Strange or inappropriate communication
Neglect of personal grooming
Disorganized behavior
Delusions
False beliefs that are sustained in the face of contrary evidence normally sufficient to destroy them
Hallucinations
False perceptions that have a compelling sense of reality

Can be auditory or visual
What are the types of affect?
Flat - no emotions at all
Inappropriate
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Positive Symptoms
Bizarre behaviors such as delusions, hallucinations, and disordered speech, thinking

Negative Symptoms
Absence of normal reactions
e.g., emotional expression, motivation, normal speech
Which type of symptoms have a better prognosis for recovery?
Positive symptoms
What are the types of Schizophrenia
Paranoid
disorganized
Catatonic
undifferentiated
Paranoid
Delusions of persecution and grandeur
Disorganized
Confusion and incoherence
Severe deterioration of adaptive behavior
Catatonic
Motor disturbances from muscular rigidity to random or repetitive movements
Undifferentiated
Do not show enough specific criteria to be classified as paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic
Biological Causes
Genetic predisposition
Destruction of neural tissue (neurodegenerative hypothesis)
Atrophy in brain regions that influence cognitions, emotions


DOPAMINE
What is the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia
Overactivity of the dopamine system in brain areas regulating emotions, motivations, and cognitions

Basal ganglia connects to the frontal lobes.
Involved in that kind of behavior

Too much dopamine because of another transmitter (glutamate)
Complimentary to GABA
Psychological Factors of Schizo
Freud: extreme example of regression
Retreat from painful intrapersonal world
Chaotic sensory input
Deficits in frontal lobe executive functions
Environmental factors of Schizo
Stressful life events
Family dynamics
Home environments high in expressed emotion (Vaughn & Leff, 1976)
Social Causation hypothesis of Schizo
Higher prevalence of schizophrenia due to higher levels of stress
Social Drift Hypothesis
Deterioration of social and personal functioning causes drift into poverty
Personality Disorders
Stable, ingrained, inflexible, and maladaptive ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving
Three clusters of Personality Disorders
Dramatic and impulsive behaviors
Anxiety and fearfulness
Odd and eccentric behaviors
Histrionic
characteristic of acting
Naccissistic
self love
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Psychopaths or sociopaths
3:1 male-female ratio
Lack a conscience
Fail to respond to punishment
Biological Causes of Antisocial Personality Disorder
Genetic predisposition
Dysfunction in brain structures that govern self-control and emotional arousal?
Psychological Causes of Antisocial Personality Disorder
Psychodynamic view: lack of a superego
Inability to develop conditioned fear responses when punished leads to poor impulse control
Psychological Causes of Antisocial Personality Disorder cont.
Modeling of aggression
Parental inattention to children’s needs (Rutter, 1997)
Psychological Causes of Antisocial Personality Disorder cont.
Exposure to deviant peers
Consistent failure to think about or anticipate long-term negative consequences of acts
Demonlogical
mental illness attributed to people possessed by the devil
Importance of Paresis
the first demonstration that a psych disorder was caused by a physical malady
Axis 1
Primary Diagnosis
Axis 2
Personality disorders or mental retardations
Axis III
Relevant physical disorders
Axis IV
Intensity of psychosocial and environmental problems
Axis V
Global assessment of level of functioning
Axis 1
Primary Diagnosis

clinical symptoms, deviant behaviors occuring at the present time
Axis 2
Personality disorders or mental retardations
Axis III
Relevant physical disorders

medical conditions that might be relevant
Axis IV
Intensity of psychosocial and environmental problems
Axis V
Global assessment of level of functioning