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23 Cards in this Set

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How did the decline of the polis affect the general nature of Hellenistic thought?
It alienated the world of Hellenistic thought. I’m no longer part of the polis, just part of a huge empire, so bad the polis.
What does Aristotle/Plato see the relationship between best man and best citizen?
Philosopher does not identify with citizen, but is nice to him
What do the Epicureans see the relationship between best man and best citizen?
the good life is a life of pleasure…The happiest man is far from the citizen
What do the Stoics see the relationship between best man and best citizen?
Identified- they water down the idea of philosophy to allow everyone to share. No longer can only a few obtain. Philosophy is identified with virtue
What is Epicureans view of the nature of reality?
Materialism (Atomism) vs. Superstition, nothing exsists without
nothing. No creation from nothing; all have knowable cause, mind material
(smaller, smoother atoms)
What is Epicureans view of the good life?
Pleasure is a relief from fear and intense desire. Sex is better than love. Achieve a calm state of soul - philosopher is best.
What does Plato believe about love?
love is like the stairs, beauty continually rising and building until one
finally arrives to what is truly beautiful.
How are the Stoics like the Socratics?
1. Virtue is key to happiness
2. Rational order in cosmos (hierarchy)
3. Rational order in soul (reason rules passions)
How are the Stoics and Socratics different?
1.Universal brotherhood: Cosmopolis-
2. Providence cares for humankind: anthropocentric tendency. A God who cares for human kind. Socrats- Gods don’t matter much
3. Equality: Philosophy for everyone. Exaggerates self-sufficiency of virtue
Effaces distinction: philosophical / practical
What does Seneca beleive about hope?
Don’t hope without a measure of despair, and don’t despair without a measure of hope.
What does Christianity beleive about hope?
"have a perfect brightness of hope" - eternal life, no room for despair
What does Plato/Aristotle beleive about hope?
The philosopher wants to bring out the good of the city. The falling leaves story.
What is Plotinus’ view of the orders of reality?
1. Plato’s good, or "the One". See top to bottom.

2. Aristotelian Intellect (Aristotle’s God)

3. Living Soul (real world experience; what those in the cave would understand)
What, according to Jules Peguy, is the importance of Rome?
It has roots for two of man’s inheritances, philosophy and religion.
How did the Roman Republic become an Empire?
Successful defensive conquests, treating conquered areas with dignity made them Allies
What are three key elements of the Roman legacy? Explain each briefly.
1. Law-order and system
2. Mixed Constitution- monarchical, aristocratic, and democratic elements
3. Innovation Within Existing Order- when constructing a constitution, apply and include things learned from past conflicts, struggles and difficulties.
Who was Cicero?
He placed politics above philosophical study.
An academic Platonist. On the Roman Consul and a republican.
What is the best regime for Cicero?
Monarchy - but it can lead to a revolution and subsequent collapse of authority.
What is the most stable regime for Cicero?
Three different parts: the consoles, the senate, and the people.
What is the significance of Cicero’s “Dream of Scipio”?
1. Goodness of a contemplative life
2. harmony of the
spheres
3. Eternity of the soul apart from the body
4. Triviality of ambition and fame.
According to Reynolds, what is myth 1 about the Apostasy?
1. Happened because of outside persecution.
-Most persecution were internal as seen from Paul's letters in the bible.
According to Reynolds, what is myth 2 about the Apostasy?
2. Caused by hellenization of Christianity and Greek philosophy
-Off by a century. No greek philosophy was apart of the church until late in the second century.
-Greek philosophy saved Christianity because it defended it according to Alexander the great.
According to Reynolds, what is myth 3 about the Apostasy?
3. Great and Abdominal Church = Catholics.
-First time this idea was shown was by Protestant writers who were anti-catholic and joined the church.
-The bible looks to have been changed and so can't validate that the church is Catholic.