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44 Cards in this Set

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Angular Momentum Quantum Number
Designates a sublevel within a main energy level: s,p,d,f
Atom
The basic unit of an element that can enter into a chemical combination
Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Atom Mass
A weighted average of the naturally occurring isotoes of an element compared with carbon-12
Aufbau Principle
The buildingup principle of the periodic system of the elements, based on four quantum numbers assigned to every electron in an atom
Core
In electronic configuration of an element, the symbol in brackets of the noble gas preceding the element in the periodic table
Electron Capacity
The number of electrons that can be accommodated by each electron shell, subshell, and orbital
Electron Cloud
The electron probability density at each point in an atom; the probability of finding an electron at that point
Electron Configuration
The distribution of electrons in the quantum shells of an atom
Element
A pure substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by ordinary chemical or physical means
Energy-level diagram
The representation of the electron configuration of an atom using circles or boxes for orbitals and arrows for electrons
Excited State
Any state other than the ground state of an atom
Ground State
In the ground state of an atom, the electrons occupy the lowest energy levels available and the atom is stable
Group
A vertical column in the periodic table occupied by elements with related chemical and physical properties that make up a chemical family
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
According to this principle, if we can measure the energy of an electron precisely, we cannot simultaneously determine the exact position of the electron
Hund's Rule
Electrons dod not enter into joint occupancy of an orbital until all of the available orbitals of a given subshell are half occupied
Isotopes
Different varieties of the atoms of an element. Their nuclei have the same atomic number but different mass numbers
Magnetic Quatum Number
Designates a sublevel or orbital
Main-group elements
The elements in a verical column in the periodic table designated I1 to VIIA
Mass Number
The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass Spectrometer
An intrument that separates the isotopes of an element
Moseley's Law
The properties of the elements are a periodic function of their atomic numbers
Neutrons
A nuclear particle with approximately the same mass as a proton but lacking an electrical charge
Noble Gas
One of the family of elements helium, neon, agron, krypton, xenon, and radon. All except helium have eight electrons in the outermost energy level
Nucleon
A proton or a neutron
Octet
The presence of eight electrons in the outmost energy level of an atom
Orbital
A sub-sublevel of an atom that can accommodate two electrons of opposite spin
Paui Exclusion Principle
No two electrons of the same atom may have the same set of four quantum numbers
Period
A horizontal row running from left to right across the periodic table
Periodic Table
A chart showing all the elements arranged in columns in such a way that the elements in a given colum exhibit similar chmical properties
Periodicity
The recurrence at definite intervals of the chemical and physical properties of the elements when arranged in a table according to increasing atomic number
Positive Ion
An atom that has lost one or more electrons and carries a positive charge
Principal Quantum Number
Determins the main energy level in which an electron is located
Probability
The position of an electron in an atom is uncertain, so that we can only refer to the probability of an electron being in a certain region
Proton
A nuclear particle of an atom carrying a unit positive charge
Quantized
The energies of electrons located in energy levels around the nucleus can take on only certain values specified by four quantum numbers
Quantum Mechanics
A mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory
Representative Elements
See Main-group elements
Shell
An orbit or main energy level
Spin Quantum Number
One of two equivalent electron spin orientations
Symbol
A representation of an element
Transition Metals
Elements in the B columns in the periodic table in which d or f orbitals are being filled
Unified Atomic Mass Unit
An arbitrary mass unit defined to be exactly one-twelfth the mass of the carbon-12 isotope
Wave Mechanics
A system based on Erwin Schrodinger's wave nature of the electrons is assumed and the solution describe the arrangement of electrons in atoms