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60 Cards in this Set
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Kinetic molecular theory

the collection of assumptions about the small particles of matter and the space around them.


chemical elements

similar groups of atoms that make up pure substances


molecule

a tightly bound group of atoms in which the atoms maitain their idenity


cohesion

when some molecules of solids and liquids interact, strongly attracting and clinging to each other


vapor

used to describe a gas that is usally in the liquid phase


Formula: kenetic energy

KE = 1/2 mv2 ( mv2 2 = squared)


the kinetic energy of molecules can be in what three basic forms

vibrational, rotational, translational ( invloving the motion of a molecule as a whole)


what is measure the temperature

it is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules making up the substance


Formula for converting temparatures from farhienheit to celsius

Tf = 9/5 Tc + 32


Absolute scale or Kelvin scale

a temp scale that does not have arbitrarily assigned reference points and zero does mean nothing


absolute zero

lowest temp possible occuring when all random motion of molecules has ceased


absolute zero as written

0K as in 0 kelvins


0 k equals

273*C


formula between the absolute scale and celsius scale

Tk = Tc + 273


external energy

the total potential and kinetic energy of an everyday sized object


heat

total internal energy of molecules which is increased by gaining energy from a temperature difference or by gaining energy from a form conversion


internal energy

the total kinetic and potential energy of the molecules of an object


calorie

the amount of energy or heat needed to increase the temp of 1 gram of water 1 degree celsius


kilocalorie

amount of energy needed to increase the temp of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree celsius


BTU British thermal unit

amount of energy or heat needed to increase the temp of 1 pound of water 1 degree farienhiet


quad

1 quadrillion btu or 10 to the 15 btu


1 cal

4.184 J


1 Kcal

4184 J


specific heat

the amount of energy or heat needed to increase the temp of 1 gram of a substance 1 degree celsius


formula for specific heat

Q = mc/\t


insulators

poor heat conducters


convection

transfer of heat by a large scale displacement of groups of molecules with retalivty higher kinetic energy


radiation

form of energy moving through space


phase change

when a solid liquid or gas changes from one phase to another


latent heat

hidden heat


sublimation

solid gas phase change


latent heat of fusion (Lf)

quantity of heat absorbed without a temp change


latent heat of vaporization (Lv)

heat involved in a liquid gas phase change where there is evaporation or condensation


formula ( latent heat of fusion)

Q = mLf


formula ( latent heat of vaporization)

Q = mLv


simple harmonic motion

the vibratory motion that occurs when there is a restoring force opposite to and proportional to a displacement


amplitude

the extent of displacement from the equlibrium position


cycle

a complete vibration movement from one point back to the point again


period

time required to complete one cycle


frequency

number of cycles per second


hertz

unit frequency is measured in


wave

pulses and periodic vibrations


longitudnal wave

disturbances that causes particles to move closer together or father apart in the same direction that the wave is moving


transverse wave

disturbance that causes motion perpendicular to the direction the wave is moving


frequency formula

T = 1/f


condensation

pulse of jammed together molecules


rarefaction

pulse of thinned out molecules


infrasonic

longitudinal waves with frequency less 20 Hz


ultrasonic

longitudinal waves with frequency above 20,000 Hz


wavelength

the length in which a wave repeats itslef


speed formula

v = distance / time


wave formula

v= \ F


velocity of sound at different temp (formula)

Vtp (m/s) = Vo (.60 m/s / C)(Tp)
Vtp (ft/s) = Vo (2.0 ft/s / C) (Tp) 

wave front

the same part in each wave in spherical waves


boundary

division between two physical conditions


refraction

the bending of a wave front between boundaries


reverbration

mixing of sound with reflections


specific heat of water

1


formula for open tube

Fn (nv/2L)
where n = 1, 2, 3, etc 

formula for closed tube

fn = nv/4L
where n = 1, 3, 5, 7 