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60 Cards in this Set

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Kinetic molecular theory
the collection of assumptions about the small particles of matter and the space around them.
chemical elements
similar groups of atoms that make up pure substances
molecule
a tightly bound group of atoms in which the atoms maitain their idenity
cohesion
when some molecules of solids and liquids interact, strongly attracting and clinging to each other
vapor
used to describe a gas that is usally in the liquid phase
Formula: kenetic energy
KE = 1/2 mv2 ( mv2 2 = squared)
the kinetic energy of molecules can be in what three basic forms
vibrational, rotational, translational ( invloving the motion of a molecule as a whole)
what is measure the temperature
it is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules making up the substance
Formula for converting temparatures from farhienheit to celsius
Tf = 9/5 Tc + 32
Absolute scale or Kelvin scale
a temp scale that does not have arbitrarily assigned reference points and zero does mean nothing
absolute zero
lowest temp possible occuring when all random motion of molecules has ceased
absolute zero as written
0K as in 0 kelvins
0 k equals
-273*C
formula between the absolute scale and celsius scale
Tk = Tc + 273
external energy
the total potential and kinetic energy of an everyday sized object
heat
total internal energy of molecules which is increased by gaining energy from a temperature difference or by gaining energy from a form conversion
internal energy
the total kinetic and potential energy of the molecules of an object
calorie
the amount of energy or heat needed to increase the temp of 1 gram of water 1 degree celsius
kilocalorie
amount of energy needed to increase the temp of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree celsius
BTU British thermal unit
amount of energy or heat needed to increase the temp of 1 pound of water 1 degree farienhiet
quad
1 quadrillion btu or 10 to the 15 btu
1 cal
4.184 J
1 Kcal
4184 J
specific heat
the amount of energy or heat needed to increase the temp of 1 gram of a substance 1 degree celsius
formula for specific heat
Q = mc/\t
insulators
poor heat conducters
convection
transfer of heat by a large scale displacement of groups of molecules with retalivty higher kinetic energy
radiation
form of energy moving through space
phase change
when a solid liquid or gas changes from one phase to another
latent heat
hidden heat
sublimation
solid gas phase change
latent heat of fusion (Lf)
quantity of heat absorbed without a temp change
latent heat of vaporization (Lv)
heat involved in a liquid gas phase change where there is evaporation or condensation
formula ( latent heat of fusion)
Q = mLf
formula ( latent heat of vaporization)
Q = mLv
simple harmonic motion
the vibratory motion that occurs when there is a restoring force opposite to and proportional to a displacement
amplitude
the extent of displacement from the equlibrium position
cycle
a complete vibration- movement from one point back to the point again
period
time required to complete one cycle
frequency
number of cycles per second
hertz
unit frequency is measured in
wave
pulses and periodic vibrations
longitudnal wave
disturbances that causes particles to move closer together or father apart in the same direction that the wave is moving
transverse wave
disturbance that causes motion perpendicular to the direction the wave is moving
frequency formula
T = 1/f
condensation
pulse of jammed together molecules
rarefaction
pulse of thinned out molecules
infrasonic
longitudinal waves with frequency less 20 Hz
ultrasonic
longitudinal waves with frequency above 20,000 Hz
wavelength
the length in which a wave repeats itslef
speed formula
v = distance / time
wave formula
v= ƒ\ F
velocity of sound at different temp (formula)
Vtp (m/s) = Vo (.60 m/s / C)(Tp)

Vtp (ft/s) = Vo (2.0 ft/s / C) (Tp)
wave front
the same part in each wave in spherical waves
boundary
division between two physical conditions
refraction
the bending of a wave front between boundaries
reverbration
mixing of sound with reflections
specific heat of water
1
formula for open tube
Fn (nv/2L)

where n = 1, 2, 3, etc
formula for closed tube
fn = nv/4L

where n = 1, 3, 5, 7