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84 Cards in this Set

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the sytematic search for answers
A testable relationship between an independent and dependent variable (if, then)
A property that may have different values in various cases.
what you measure in the experiment and what is affected during the experiment.
Manipulated or dependent variable
is a factor that can be varied or manipulated in an experiment (e.g. time, temperature, concentration, etc). It is usually what will affect the other variable.
Responding or independent variable
means managing the conditions of an investigation
Control or constant variable
are inferred explanations for observable phenomena
has variables,can be measured; is the process that encompasses all of the basic and integrated processes
Using one or more senses to describe an object or phenomena; Use measurement to enhance observations
Use hand lenses, microscopes and telescopes to add detail
Based on observations; Draw a conclusion based on information not directed observed; Based on past experiences and patterns
Statement of support or non support of original hypothesis; Revised hypothesis if needed
Description of any unusual events; What you would do differently next time; Ideas for extensions
The act or process of turning around a center or an axis
Orbital motion about a point, especially as distinguished from axial rotation
is a closed path that an object takes as it revolves around another body. they are generally elliptical, but may be perturbed by the presence of yet other bodies and may even form unusual figures.
Between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter lies a belt of objects smaller than any planet; They are composed mainly of rock and iron; They orbit the Sun in the same way as the planets; Craters observed on moon and on Mars are probably result of collisions with these; Some craters on Earth can be explained most easily as the results of collisions with these millions of years ago
are masses of stone and iron from space that sometimes strike Earth; many enter Earth’s atmosphere, but few reach the surface; Most are burned up by friction as they move through the atmosphere; If they reach the Earth’s surface, they are known as this!
A sudden eruption of hydrogen gas on the surface of the sun, usually associated with sunspots and accompanied by a burst of ultraviolet radiation that is often followed by a magnetic disturbance.
Solar Flare
Extending present observations back to a point of origin, some astronomers conclude that the universe began some 8 to 20 billion years ago when all matter, at that time condensed into a tiny volume of space and exploded and that sent it off in all directions
Big Bang Theory
center; inner - solid metal; Outer - melted metal; very hot
very thick; Upper - solid rock; Lower - partly melted rock
very thin; always changing; Oceanic - Found below oceans
Deepest - Mariana Trench 11km deep; Continental - Forms land
Highest - Mt Everest 9km high
Three concepts are important in the study and use of this: (1) they represent the remains of once-living organisms. (2) Most are the remains of extinct organisms. (3) The kinds of them found in rocks of different ages differ because life on Earth has changed through time.
3000+; Rocks are made of them; an inorganic solid substance that occurs naturally in rocks and in the ground and has its own characteristic appearance and chemical composition
Made of Minerals; any consolidated material such as granite or limestone, or unconsolidated material such as sand or mud, consisting of more than one mineral and sometimes organic material;
Identification made by composition and how made
Does it make a mark on the plate and what color mark?
Can something scratch the mineral and what can scratch it?
fracture; How does it break?
1-Talc – soft, greasy, flakes on fingers
2-Gypsum – scratched by fingernail
3-Calcite – scratched by penny
4-Fluorite, scratched easily by knife
5-Apatite – scratched by knife with difficulty
6-Orthoclase – scratched by glass
7-Quartz – scratches steel file
8-Topaz – scratches quartz
Moh's Scale
A planar feature, such as a bedding plane, that has been strongly warped, presumably by deformation
A planar or gently curved fracture in the Earth's crust across which there has been relative displacement.
A broad and gentle epeirogenic increase in the elevation of a region without a eustatic change of sea level.
Moving of weathered materials
breaking down of rocks
Changes the minerals that make up rocks; Caused by water, oxygen and acids
Limestone caves
Iron + oxygen = rust
Lichens and mosses on rocks
Acid rain
Chemical Weathering
Changes the sizes and shapes of rocks; Caused by:
Running water
Frozen water
Living things
Human activity
Physical or mechanical weathering
Happens when the water slows down; Large sediment is dropped first; Sediment forms new land
Sand bars
helps for erosion control
Silt fence
look up
Implications of erosion & deposition
A body of sediment deposited in an ocean or lake at the mouth of a stream.
From cooling magma
Granite – Stone Mountain – batholithic
Basalt – small crystals, cools rapidly
Quartz – large crystals, cools slowly
Obsidian – glasslike, volcanic
Igneous Rock
An igneous rock body that has forced its way in a molten state into surrounding country rock.
melted rock; Molten rock material that forms igneous rocks upon cooling; once this reaches the earth's surface it is considered lava
From pressed and cemented sediments
Often contains fossils
Shale – mud
Sandstone – sand
Limestone – shells, dissolved lime
Sedimentary rock
From heat and pressure
Marble – from limestone
Gneiss (nice) – from granite
Slate – from shale
Metamorphic rock
The Earth is made of about 20 plates; They fit together like puzzle pieces; They move slowly on the mantle; They cause earthquakes and volcanoes
Theory of Plate Tectonics
Plates come apart; Sea floor spreading - Mid Atlantic ridge
Divergent boundary
Plates come together; Mountain building - Himalayas
Convergent boundary
Plates slide beside each other; San Andreas fault
Transform-fault boundary
The mechanism by which new sea floor crust is created at ridges in divergence zones and adjacent plates are moved apart to make room; Mid Atlantic ridge
Sea floor spreading
formed by Sea floor spreading
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Continuous, submarine mountain chain extending approximately 50,000 mi (80,000 km) through all the world's oceans, separating them into distinct basins.
Oceanic Ridge
deepest in the oceanic crust
Mariana trench
highest in the continental crust
Mt. Everest
where weather takes place
Jets fly in the lower layers; region between the troposphere and mesosphere, extending from 10 to 30 miles above the Earth's surface.
A region of the upper atmosphere, between about 15 and 30 kilometers (10 and 20 miles) in altitude, containing a relatively high concentration of ozone that absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation in a wavelength range not screened by other atmospheric components
Ozone layer
These clouds usually have flat bases and lumpy tops. These clouds are usually very isolated with large areas of blue sky in between the clouds. Most of these clouds form below 6,000 feet and are relatively thin and associated with fair weather.
These clouds are thin, wispy clouds that usually form above 18,000 feet. These clouds are blown by strong westerly winds aloft into streamers known as "mares' tails" These clouds generally move from west to east across the sky and usually "point" to fair weather. These clouds form when water vapor undergoes deposition and forms ice crystals.
These clouds are uniform gray clouds that usually cover the entire sky. Precipitation rarely falls from true blank clouds, but light mist and drizzle can sometimes accompany these clouds.
there are two types of this kind (1)Cumulonimbus – short violent storms and
(2)Nimbostratus – long steady rain, snow
These are characterized by sinking air at their center and mostly precipitation-free, clear skies. The highest pressure is found at it central core and pressure decreases outward.
High pressure system
These are characterized by rising air at the center
The presence or approach of a low pressure cell signals cloudy and wet weather.
Low pressure system
Occurs when a cold air mass pushes along a warm air mass;
Cumulus clouds are usually associated; Usually a quick violent storm; After the rain, the temperature is cooler; Severity is associated with the difference between masses
Cold front system
It occurs when a warm air mass pushes along a cold air mass, the warm air has a tendency to rise over the cooler air; Cirrus and stratus clouds are usually associated; Long steady rains followed by warm moist air
Warm front system
A transition zone between two nearly stationary air masses of different density.
Stationary front
About March 21; Equal day hours and night hours; Sun’s rays at 90 degrees on the equator; The same for every latitude
Vernal equinox
About September 21; Equal day hours and night hours; Sun’s rays at 90 degrees on the equator; The same for every latitude
Autumnal equinox
About December 21; The sun’s rays are directly on the Tropic of Capricorn; Fewer hours of daylight that darkness; The hours or light decrease as the latitude increases; Above the Arctic Circle there is no sunrise; The opposite happens in the Southern Hemisphere
Winter solstice
About June 21; The sun’s rays are directly on the Tropic of Cancer; More hours of daylight that darkness; The hours or light increase as the latitude increases; The opposite happens in the Southern Hemisphere; Above the Arctic Circle there is no sunset
Summer solstice
The ratio of the amount of moisture the atmosphere contains to the amount it would contain at the saturation (condensation) level at a particular temperature is blank blank
Relative humidity
The temperature at which a given body of air becomes saturated
Dew point
area near equator that experiences low pressures and light shifting winds.
Any of a consistent system of prevailing winds occupying most of the tropics, constituting the major component of the general circulation of the atmosphere, and blowing northeasterly in the Northern Hemisphere and southeasterly in the Southern Hemisphere
Trade winds
located between 60 – 90 degrees north and south of the Equator
located between 30 - 60 degrees north and south of the Equator
measures pressure
An instrument for measuring wind force and velocity.
An instrument used to indicate wind direction, consisting basically of an asymmetrically shaped object mounted at its center of gravity about a vertical axis; the end which offers the greater resistance to the motion of air moves to the downwind position; the direction of the wind is determined by reference to an attached oriented compass rose.
Wind vane
A thermometer having the bulb covered with a cloth, usually muslin or cambric, saturated with water.
Wet-bulb thermometer
the process by which an element changes phase from a liquid to a gas; the opposite of condensation.
The process by which a gas or vapor changes to a liquid
rain, drizzle and other forms of moisture falling from clouds. Raindrops form around particles of dust or salt, join other water droplets or ice droplets and fall when sufficently heavy in the from of liquid or ice, depending on the quantity of collected ice crystals.
last phase of the water cycle