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142 Cards in this Set

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What are natural sources of light?
Sun, fire, animals- bioluminescence.
What are artificial sources of light?
light bulbs, fireworks, flashlights, etc.
A testable prediction is a
Hypothesis
What 3 things does sound have?
Pitch, quality, and intensity.
The mixture of overtones that gives a sound source its distinguishing characteristics is the ?
Quality
What depends on the number of complete vibrations that the vibrating object makes in 1 sec? This is the highness and lowness of a sound!
Pitch
The loudness of sound that is measured in decibels is called the ?
Intensity
The source of ALL sound objects is ?
A vibrating object
The number of waves that pass a given point in a given time and is usually expressed as the number of vibrations per second is the
Frequency
Reflected sound waves that can be distinguished from the original sound are know as
Echoes
The pressed togetherness of the sound is considered
Compression
When the sound pulls apart or from the air particles to separate, it is known as
Rarefraction
Smooth objects such as mirrors, lakes, etc are good sources for light
Reflection
Light Reflection occurs at the same or different angles?
Same angle
Mirrors that make images larger and often upside down are what kind of mirrors? IE Car mirrors
Concave Mirrors
Mirrors that make images smaller and are usually located in convenience stores are what kind of mirrors?
Convex Mirrors
The bending of light when it moves from one kind of matter to another is an example of
Refracted Light
what kind of lenses bring light rays together?
Convex lenses
Lenses that spread light rays apart are ?
Concave lenses
These break light into visible spectrums.
Prisms
What colors are white made up of?
Made up of all colors
What can change the direction of the force?
Wheel and Axel
Adding what can make a gear?
Teeth
The size of the wheel can also change the
Direction
Bat, fishing rod, broom, see saw, hammer, etc can all be used as? and change the direction of force.
Levers
A what is a simple machine?
Screw, wedge, pulley, etc.
What spreads the force over a longer distance?
Inclined plane
"Every object persists in its state of rest of uniform motions in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed on it" equals what law?
First Law = Law of Inertia
"Force is equal to the change in momentum per change in time. For a constant mass, force equals mass times acceleration is what law of motion?
Second Law
"For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action" is what law of motion?
3rd Law
Weightlessness gravity is the affect of having little graviting pulling on the object and is known as
Microgravity
The force that opposes the motion and yields heat energy is considered?
Friction
What is the center of an atom where electrons and protons are located?
Nucleus
These atoms have neither a positive or negative charge. There is no electrical charge.
Neutrons
These atoms are possitively charged.
Protons
These are negative charged atoms that are circled around the nucleus.
Electrons
Protons+neutrons=?
Atomic Mass
# of protons an element contains is the
Atomic Number
The transfer of electrons with two unlike atoms that attract one another to make a bond is a ? bond
Ionic
The bond where atoms share electrons is ? bond
Convalent
This has a definite shape and volume. ie- plastic, wood, metal, ice, and wax
A solid
This takes the shape of its container and has a definite volume. ie- water, alcohol, oil, and detergent.
A liquid
This takes the shape of the container BUT doesn't have a definite volume. ie- oxygen, vapor, carbon dioxide
A gas
A substance made up of two or more elements formed by a chemical reaction that results in a different substance.
Compound
The addition or removal of heat to a substance can be a ? change.
Physical Change
The substance changes from the orginal substance due to a ? change (something different- color, heat, gas, etc)
Chemical Change
When substances are combined together without any chemical reaction.
Mixture
The process of gathering information through the senses is called?
An observation
What kingdom is algae in?
Protista Kingdom
A scientific theory, once formed is
Never Changed!
Photosynthesis is the combination of
sugar+light+carbon dioxide
h20+Co2+light.
What makes a plant part of the vascular system?
It has protection against water loss such as a waxy coating called cuticle. They also have stomatas?
Pores in the underside of the leaf where gas exchange takes place is called ? of the plant
Stomata
What are the functions of roots?
Anchor, water, and nutrients
Tubes through which food and water flow in a plant.
Vascular tissue
Nonvascular plants include
mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
Vascular plants are all other plants that
are divided into sporing or seed bearing plants
Gymnosperm plants are
vascular plants without flowers
Angiosperm plants are
vascular plants with flowers
Multicellular organisms that obtain food from their environments, have systems to allow them to move, reproduce sexually, and are placed in two groups of backbones or without are in what kingdom
Kingdom Animalia
Animals without a backbone are found in the animal kingdom under what subgroup?
Invertebrates
Examples of invertebrates are......
mollusk, jellyfish, sponges, starfish, worms, lobsters, spiders and insects.
Kool-aid is an example of ? because its mixture is the same throughout and is considered a homogeneous mix.
Solution
Oil and Vinegar is an example of a ? mixture because its mixture is not mixed throughly throughout but yet remains separated- Heterogenous
Suspension
30 is ?
20 is ?
10 is ?
0 is ?
30 is warm
20 is nice
10 is cool and
0 is ice.
0 degrees C and 32 degrees F =
Freezing
100 degrees C and 212 degrees F=
Boiling
The measurement of how much energy a substance possesses or transfers is a
Calorie
fundamental particles are
Atoms
The smallest particle in a chemical element or compound that has the chemical properties of that element or compound is a
Molecule
A tabular arrangement of the elements according to their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties are in the same column.
Periodic Table
All molecules are constantly moving in some manner and constant motion is
Kinetic Energy
When heat is added to a molecule, it moves (ie- gas)
Faster
When a molecule looses heat, it (ie- solid)
Slows Down
Matter is composed of tiny particles, empty space separates the molecules, molecules are in constant motion, when heat is added- kinetic energy increases, when heat is removed- kinetic energy decreases are all parts of what theory
Kinetic Molecular Theory
This occurs in solids when an atom or molecule or a substance absorbs heat and passes it to other molecules with less heat energy.
Conduction
This occurs in liquids or gases when an area of fluid is heated, the molecules of that region gain kinetic energy, and the average distance btw the molecules in that region increase.
Convection
Convection causes the heated fluids to become ? dense
Less
Animals WITH backbones are
Vertebrates
This is the occurrence of heat being transferred through a vacuum.
Radiation
The energy of position is
Potential Energy
Energy released by chemical change (battery, burning, metabolic processes) is known as
Chemical Energy
Energy of moving molecules
Thermal Energy
Energy released when atoms split or join, brought about by a change in the nucleus is considered (ie- stars, atomic bomb, nuclear reactor)
Nuclear Energy
Energy that can move through an empty space ie Sun is what kind of energy?
Solar/Radiant Energy
The force we apply is the
Effort
The force we overcome such as gravity or friction is considered
the resistance
The product of a force exerted on an object and the through which it moves is the
Work
What is the WORK in this problem: A girl pushes a box with 20 lbs of force 10 feet.
200 feet per lbs. You multiply the force by the distance to get your product.
A push or a pull is a
Force
The ability to do work or produce a change is
Energy
The work applied to a machine is the
input
The work produced by the machine is the
output
An expression of the multiplication of force by a machine; the ratio of the resistance overcome to the effort applied (Divide the resistance by the effort)
Mechanical Advantage
An inclined plane rolled up is a
Scew
Examples of vertebrates are......
fish, frogs, snakes, birds, and mammals.
The friction from air molecules hitting an object as the object moves through the air is
Air resistance
What is a simple, two-layered, hollow bodied, with an opening on one end surrounded by tentacles? ie- sea anemone, coral, hydra
Phylum Cndaria
Mostly segmented roundworms, possess well -defined nercous system and digestive system is what phylum?
Phylum Annelida
Shellfish and snails, usually possess soft unsegmented bodies with exterior shells made of calcium carbonate are from what phylum?
Pylum Mollusca
Archnida, crucstacea, insecta are animals having segmented bodies with distinct regions and are hard jointed exoskeleton, bilaterally symmetrical with pairs of moveable joints?
Phylum Anthropoda
Marine animals that possess internal calcium carbonate skeletons, tube feet, water vascular systems, radial symmetry are what phylum?
Phylum Echinodermata
Traits that are heredity, physical, and cannot be changed are ? traits ie- reflex, instinct, web building/migration, etc.
Inherited Traits
Behavior that is acquired from observation such as learning to ignore/from experience, copying, or using two unrelated things-dog training are all ? behaviors
Learned behaviors
All of the following are aspects of the ? variable: must be changed by itself, effect, be measured in SI
The responding variable
What you change on purpose is the, the cause, only one per experiment?
Manipulated Variable
The item that stays the same throughout the entire experiment is the ? variable
The controlled/constant variable.
Something that ask a comparison ? or a planned and conducted investigation that can be answered by doing systematic observations is an
Experiment
A ? is the pattern of disturbance caused by the movement of energy traveling through a medium (such as air, water,etc.
Sound Wave
The ? of an object refers to the amount of matter that is contained by the object
Mass
the ? of an object is the force of gravity acting upon that object
Weight
? is the rate of change of velocity as a function of time
Acceleration
distance travelled per unit time, a rate (usually rapid) at which something happens
Speed
A measure of the motion of a body equal to the product of its mass and velocity.
Momentum
is the change in velocity over the change in
Acceleration
is a vector measurement of the rate and direction of motion or, in other terms, the rate and direction of the change in the position
Velocity
the force of attraction between all masses in the universe
Gravity
a flow of electrical charge carriers, usually electrons or electron-deficient atoms
Current
a path between two or more points along which an electrical current can be carried
Circuit
An electric circuit connected so that current passes through each circuit.
Series Circuit
A closed circuit in which the current divides into two or more paths
Parallel Circuit
an electrochemical cell, or an apparatus for generating voltaic electricity
Battery
One celled, some multicelled, nutrition by absorbtion, cell walls made of chitin, sexual or asexual reproduction are all characteristics of
Fungi
Multicellular, produce own food through photosynthesis, cells surrounded by cell wall, sexual or asexual
Plant kingdom
Multicellular, nutrition by ingestion, cells surrounded by cell membrane, have complex organs, mainly sexual reproduction
Animal kingdom
The rigid outermost cell layer found in plants and certain algae, bacteria, and fungi but characteristically absent from animal cells
cell wall
The semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell
cell membrane
are membrane-bound compartments within some eukaryotic cells that can serve a variety of secretory, excretory, and storage functions
Vacuole
a gelatinous, semi-transparent fluid that "fills" most cells where the cells metabolism takes place
Cytoplasm/Cytosol
The brain of the plant. It tells the plant with kind it is.
Nucleus of a plant
is the process in which a cell duplicates its chromosomes to generate two identical cells
Mitosis
the process in which the chemical bonds of energy-rich molecules such as glucose are converted into energy usable for life processes
Respiration
the evaporation of water from plants
Transpiration
the molecule that traps this 'most elusive of all powers'/ photoreceptor/green pigment of the plant.
Chlorophyll
The turning or bending movement of an organism or a part toward or away from an external stimulus, such as light, heat, or gravity
Tropism
The marsupials are characterized by the presence of a pouch (marsupium) in the female- Kangaroo
Marsupialia
the orderly repetition of parts of an animal or plant
Symmetry
An inborn pattern of behavior that is characteristic of a species and is often a response to specific environmental stimuli
Instinct
The gene that overtakes the recessive gene and therefore is expressed in the outcome.
Dominant Gene
A gene that is phenotypically expressed in the homozygous state but has its expression masked in the presence of a dominant gene
Recessive Gene
group of organisms interrelated by the fact that each member of the group feeds upon on the one below it and is in turn eaten
Food Chain
an organism that gets its food energy from dead parts of other organisms; an important part of the energy cycle and food webs
Decomposer