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35 Cards in this Set

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Protists are a _________ group.
Paraphyletic.

Protists are not monophyletic!
Animal-like protozoa
Ingestive heterotrophs - food particles
fungus-like oomycetes + others
absorptive heterotrophs - organic molecules
Mixotrophic? Detailed example?
photosynthetic and heterotrophic.

Example: Euglena can switch to heterotrophy in absence of light and be photoautotrophic when there is light.
Primary endosymbiosis
Cyanobacteria engulfed by heterotroph and became plastid bearing Red and Green Algae.
Secondary endosymbiosis
Red and green algae englufed by other heterotrophs to form other protists
Decendents of Red algae
Dionflagellates and apicomplexans
Decendents of Green algae
Euglenids and Chorarachniophytes
Nucleomorph and 4 membranes of plastid present in
Chorarachniophytes (which evovlved from secondary endosymbiosis of green algae)
-Lack plastids
-Mitochondria do not have: DNA, electron transport chains, or citric acid cycle enzymes
-Both are usually found in anaerobic environments
-Many parasitic forms
Diplomonadida and Parabasala
Example of Diplomonad that is the most common cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis? What is their life-cycle?
-Giardia intestinalis
-Lifecycle: trophozoites – feed (not resistant outside host). Cysts (resistant outside host)
Kinetoplastids + Euglenids =
Euglenozoans
Group who's main morphological feature is Flagellated: locomotion and they are autotrophic / mixotrophic / heterotrophic? Example of kinetoplastid? euglenid?
-Euglenozoans
-Kinetoplastid: Trypanosoma causes
Sleeping sickness via tsetse flies
-Euglenid: Euglen = mixtrophic
Two groups of Chromalveolates?
Alveolates and Stramenopiles
Has alveoli (small membrane-bound sac) under plasma membrane? Examples?
-Alveolata
-Dinoflagellates; Apicoplexans, ciliates
Apicomplexans?
-Example of Alveoleta.
-Have intricate life cycles with sexual and asexual stages requiring multiple hosts.
-Plasmodium causes Malaria. Study slide 17 of lecture 10 and Figure 28.10 on pg 583.
-Causes Malaria.
-2 hosts needed for reproduction
-haploid sporozoites invade liver of host, multiply, and metamorphose to merozoite stage.
-Merozoites: invade RBCs, multiply. Emerge in waves to : 1. infect new RBCs. 2. produce eggs and sperm.
Plasmodium (example of apicomplexans)
Ciliates?
-Example of Alveoleta
-Use cilia to move around
-Macronucleus - controls everyday function/asexual reproduction
-micronuclei - req for sexual reproduc.
Usually unicellular; Marine and freshwater phytoplankton community; Can cause harmful algal blooms (eq red tides); Cellulose armor plating; use enzyme LUCIFERASE to be bioluminescent.
Dinoflagellates
Example of Ciliates?
Paramecium and Stentor
Oomycetes?
-Example of stramenophile
-Fungli-like--> absorb organic molecules via feeding hyphae (example of convergence)
-Water molds, downy mildews, white rusts
-Cellulose in cell walls (vs. polysacharides in fungi).
-Many forms have lost plastids
-Many are decomposers or plant parasites.
Diatoms?
-Example of stramenophile
-Unicellular photosynthetic algae (occasionally colonial); Shell composed of silica (glass); Radially or bilaterally symmetric; Dominant component of phytoplankton; Major carbon sink.
Largest and most complex algae that are? Mostly marine and multicelluar. Have convergence on plant design including blades(leaves), Stripe(stem), and holdfast(roots).
Brown Algae
Alteration of generations? Present in?
Alternation of MULTICELLUAR haploid and diploid stages.
Present in Brown algae. Study figure 28.16 on pg 587.
Algae that contain yellow and brown carotenoids, are biflaggelated, and can be photosynthetic or mixotrophic.
Golden Algae
All Rhizarians possess_____?
Three major groups?
-Pseudopodia - projections that protrude through or from cell surface – used for feeding/movement
-Radiolarians, foraminiferans, and cercozoans.
Marine plankton; Thread-like pseudopodia; Emerge from foraminae; Shells (“tests”) made of calcium carbonate; multi-chambered
-Foraminifera (forams)
-Petroleum = partially decomposed foras
-Used as index fossils
Radiolarians
-Delicate intricately symmetrical skeletons that are generally made of silica.
-Pseudopodia radiate from central body via cytoplasmic streaming.
Green Algae
Have chlorophyll: absorbs mostly blue and red. Hence reflects green.
Sister group to land plants.
Red algae
Red color due to phycoerythrin, which reflects red light and absorbs blue light.
Can photosynthesize at greater depths.
Red algae: edible
Charophytes?
green algae most related to land plants
Chlorophytes?
larger size and greater complexity; complex life cycles
Contain plant-type chloroplasts? Two types?
Green Algae
Charophytes and Chlorophytes
Chlorarachniophytes?
Cercozoans
Ingest smaller protists & bacteria.
Likely evolved when a heterotrophic eukaryote englufed a green alga--evidenced by tiny vestigal nucleus called a nucleomorph.
Edible Choanoflagellates?
Red algae