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21 Cards in this Set

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What are protistans?
All organisms with a nucleus that are not fungi, plants, or animals: plant-like (algae), animal-like ("protozoa"), fungi-like, and others
Protistan adaptations beyond prokaryotes
1. Cell membrane
1a. Invaginations
1b. Endocytosis
2. Cytoskeleton (cytoplasm)
3. Nuclear membrane
4. Food digestive vacuole
5. Contractile vacuole
6. Locomotion via pseudopods, flagella, or cilia
Endocytosis
The process of surrounding an external resource in order to bring it into the cell.
1. Phagocytosis - solid particle is assimilated
2. Pinocytosis - liquid particle is assimilated
Cell Membrane
Flexible protection that allows cell to grow more efficiently.
May have invaginations.
Makes endocytosis possible.
Invaginations
Folds of outer cell membrane into structure of cell that increase total external surface area, allowing for greater gas exchanges.
Cytoskeleton (cytoplasm)
Allows cell to manipulate its shape and the distribution of organelles and chromosomes within the cell.
Nuclear membrane
Protects DNA from UV radiation
Food digestive vacuole
Area specialized for acquisition and digestion of food particles
Contractile Vacuole
Alows expulsion of water (analogous to kidney/bladder)
Protistan Locomotion
Via Pseudopods ("blob"-like, reach out and pulls itself);
Via Flagella (tail/whip like projections)
Via cilia (petite poils)
Endosymbiosis
Concept where a big organism assimilates traits from smaller organism by consuming it.
Examples: mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Proof: mitochondria have their own DNA.
Euglenozoa
Clade of kingdom Protista of domain Eukarya.
1. Unicellular with flagella.
2. Used to be classed as both plants and animals.
3. Flagellum is an anterior pocket (in front)
4. Some are completely heterotrophic, some are completely autotrophic, some can switch between.
5. Examples: euglena & trypanosoma (parasitic euglenoid that causes sleeping sickness by the tetse fly in Africa)
Alveolata
A clade of the kingdom Protista of the domain Eukarya.
1. Unicellular organisms that have cavities (alveoli) below their cell (plasma) membranes.
2. Some have 2 flagella, some have cilia
3. Examples: paramecium, dinoflagellates that cause red tide, plasmodium (parasitic protistan that lives in red blood cells and causes malaria)
Stramenopila
A clade of the kingdom Protista of the domain Eukarya which contains 3 important phyla:
1. Bacillariophyta (diatoms)
2. Phaophyta (brown algae)
3. Oomycetes (water molds)
Bacillariophyta (diatoms)
A phylum of the clade Stramenopila of the kingdom Protista of the domain Eukarya.
Common name: diatoms.
Unicellular organisms with:
1. Exoskeleton of silicon (silica)
2. Photosynthetic
Phaeophyta (brown algae)
A phylum of the clade Stramenopila of the kingdom Protista of the domain Eukarya.
Common name: brown algae
Marine, photosynthetic, multicellular organisms.
Can be very large (30 meters or +)
Examples: giant kelp and Sargassum kelp.
Oomycetes (water molds)
A phylum of the clade Stramenopila of the kingdom Protista of the domain Eukarya.
Common name: water molds
Not a fungus, but does decompose.
Rhodophyta (red algae)
A clade of the kingdom Protista of the domain Eukarya.
Contains red & green chlorophyll and the amount of each can change.
Typically live in deep water.
Examples: red algae.
Chlorophyta
A clade of the kingdom Protista of the domain Eukarya.
Algae that use chlorophyll a & b.
Similar to plants, but have protistan traits.
Believed to have given rise to plants!
Examples: Spirogyra and Volvox
Choanoflagellida
A clade of the kingdom Protista of the domain Eukarya.
Believed to have given rise to animals (most related to sponges).
Amoebas (pseudopods) and slime molds
Some protistans that do not fit into any of the other clades of the kingdom Protista of the domain Eukarya.